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Ch 4: ORELA General Science: Scientific Processes

About This Chapter

Our chapter on scientific processes can help you get ready for the ORELA General Science test. Our expert instructors have created video lessons and quizzes for you to use in your quest to conquer this test.

ORELA General Science: Scientific Processes - Chapter Summary

This chapter prepares you for scientific measures and data representation questions on the ORELA General Science exam. If you're not feeling quite prepared for questions about scientific processes or if you just want to boost your confidence in your readiness, the lessons in this chapter can help you with either. The lessons review topics such as the following:

  • A review of the metric system and laboratory measurements
  • Conversion of units and dimensions
  • Use of scientific figures and notation
  • Textual vs non-textual scientific presentations
  • Reading and interpreting scientific graphs, charts and tables
  • Using measurements of central tendency such as mean, median and mode
  • Calculating standard deviation
  • Evaluating data in terms of precision, accuracy and error

Our subject matter experts have created these short video lessons and made them as enjoyable and brief as possible while still being thorough and effective. Each lesson has a corresponding quiz for you to take to ensure your comprehension and retention of the material. We want you to feel as prepared as possible for the test!

ORELA General Science: Scientific Processes - Chapter Objectives

The ORELA General Science exam is used by the state of Oregon to assess potential science teachers for licensing purposes and consists of 150 questions subdivided into 4 sections. On the Nature of Science section, which accounts for about 19% of the test, you are likely to find questions about the scientific process.

The exam seeks to confirm you understand principles as well as procedures relevant to scientific inquiry. You may find questions evaluating your knowledge of methods, criteria and mathematical principles used for collecting, organizing, analyzing and presenting scientific data as well as about materials and equipment used in the process. Use the short quizzes in this chapter to practice answering similar questions to those you'll find on the exam.

17 Lessons in Chapter 4: ORELA General Science: Scientific Processes
The Metric System: Units and Conversion

1. The Metric System: Units and Conversion

Just like you and your friend communicate using the same language, scientists all over the world need to use the same language when reporting the measurements they make. This language is called the metric system. In this lesson we will cover the metric units for length, mass, volume, density and temperature, and also discuss how to convert among them.

Understanding Laboratory Measurements: Units & Types

2. Understanding Laboratory Measurements: Units & Types

There are many different units that can be used for measurements. This may not only lead to incorrect data measurements, but also to confusion about which units are most appropriate. Therefore, a standard set of units is used for each type of measurement in the biology lab.

What Is a Meniscus? - Definition, Uses & Lab Examples

3. What Is a Meniscus? - Definition, Uses & Lab Examples

Liquids can be tricky to measure because surface tension causes them to do interesting things like forming a meniscus. In this video lesson you'll learn what a meniscus is, why it forms, and how to correctly read the volume of a liquid using the meniscus at the surface.

Unit Conversion and Dimensional Analysis

4. Unit Conversion and Dimensional Analysis

How is solving a chemistry problem like playing dominoes? Watch this lesson to find out how you can use your domino skills to solve almost any chemistry problem.

Significant Figures and Scientific Notation

5. Significant Figures and Scientific Notation

Are 7.5 grams and 7.50 grams the same? How do scientists represent very large and very small quantities? Find out the answers to these questions in this video.

Understanding Textual & Non-Textual Scientific Presentations

6. Understanding Textual & Non-Textual Scientific Presentations

In order to understand science, you have to know science. This knowledge includes understanding the various ways that scientific information may be presented as well as how to critically analyze that information.

How to Read Scientific Graphs & Charts

7. How to Read Scientific Graphs & Charts

How do scientists summarize their findings with visual aids? In this lesson, explore the different types of tables, charts and graphs that scientists use. Learn to read these effectively as a preview to your science studies.

Interpreting Graphs and Charts of Scientific Data: Practice Problems

8. Interpreting Graphs and Charts of Scientific Data: Practice Problems

Do charts and graphs make problem-solving difficult? Complex problems with visual representations can drain your brain during a test. In this lesson, learn three simple rules for solving problems with charts and graphs. We'll try them out as we walk through two sample problems.

Interpreting Tables of Scientific Data: Practice Problems

9. Interpreting Tables of Scientific Data: Practice Problems

Complex table problems getting you down? Multi-question, situational problems don't have to be a drag on your testing performance. Learn how to apply three simple rules as we walk through two table problems together.

Mean, Median & Mode: Measures of Central Tendency

10. Mean, Median & Mode: Measures of Central Tendency

By describing the data using central tendency, a researcher and reader can understand what the typical score looks like. In this lesson, we will explore in more detail these measures of central tendency and how they relate to samples and populations.

Calculating the Standard Deviation

11. Calculating the Standard Deviation

In this lesson, we will examine the meaning and process of calculating the standard deviation of a data set. Standard deviation can help to determine if the data set is a normal distribution.

Evaluating Data: Precision, Accuracy & Error

12. Evaluating Data: Precision, Accuracy & Error

The data you present as a scientist need to be as accurate, precise and error-free as possible. In this lesson, we'll discuss what each of these terms means, as well as how error is introduced into measurements and other data collection.

Statistical Analysis: Using Data to Find Trends and Examine Relationships

13. Statistical Analysis: Using Data to Find Trends and Examine Relationships

Many different organizations use statistical analysis to describe and analyze data and to predict future trends. Learn about the different types of statistics in this video lesson.

The Relationship Between Variables: Correlation Coefficient & Scatterplots

14. The Relationship Between Variables: Correlation Coefficient & Scatterplots

The focus of this lesson is on how both correlation coefficients and scatterplots convey the same message. Specifically, this lesson will explore how these two can reveal the same information but in different ways.

Make Estimates and Predictions from Categorical Data

15. Make Estimates and Predictions from Categorical Data

Categorical data can be estimated but not predicted. Learn why in this video lesson along with how to read and gather information from a bar graph of categorical data.

Making Estimates and Predictions using Quantitative Data

16. Making Estimates and Predictions using Quantitative Data

Watch this video lesson to learn how you can read a scatter plot to learn more about a particular situation. Also learn how you can make estimates within the range of data you have and predict what may happen outside the range of data.

Drawing Conclusions Based on Internal Validity

17. Drawing Conclusions Based on Internal Validity

When a researcher gets the results of their study back, how do they know that the independent variable caused the results? In this lesson, we'll look at how internal validity shapes the way researchers draw conclusions about their research.

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Other Chapters

Other chapters within the ORELA General Science: Practice & Study Guide course

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