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Ch 18: Organic Chemistry Basics

About This Chapter

Watch video lessons and become familiar with the basics of organic chemistry and carbon compounds. The self-assessment quizzes can help you check your knowledge of organic chemistry.

Organic Chemistry Basics - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds, or the chemical substances that form the basis of life forms and organisms. In this chapter, instructor Meg Desko will provide you with an introduction to carbon-based or organic molecules, including carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. In particular, you'll learn about the structure and purpose of different functional groups, such as those found in ammonia, sugars or even your own body. When you complete this chapter, you have an understanding of the following:

  • How functional groups can be used to identify biological molecules
  • Natural and man-made polymers, such as plastic
  • The carbohydrates and sugars found in everyday foods
  • Lipids and dietary fats
  • Proteins and peptide bonds
  • The different types of reactions that take place between organic compounds

Video Objectives
Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional GroupsDefine and discuss alcohols, aldehydes, amines, esters, ethers, halides, ketones and organic acids.
Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and PolymersIdentify and explain the basis of complex molecules and repeating units of molecules.
Structure and Function of CarbohydratesDescribe the organizational arrangement and use of organic compounds.
Structure and Function of LipidsDescribe the organizational arrangement and use of organic compounds associated with fatty acids.
Proteins I: Structure and FunctionDiscuss the formation and purpose of proteins.
Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide BondsDescribe the different types of peptides and how they are formed.
Proteins III: Structures and Characteristics of the 20 Amino AcidsExplain how amino acids form polypeptide chains in proteins.
Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary StructureDiscuss the higher order of protein structures.
Organic Reactions: Addition, Substitution, Polymerization, Cracking, Oxidation, Esterification and FermentationDefine and discuss the different chemical reactions of organic compounds.

11 Lessons in Chapter 18: Organic Chemistry Basics
Organic Chemistry & the Study of Carbon Compound Life Forms

1. Organic Chemistry & the Study of Carbon Compound Life Forms

Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-containing compounds. This lesson will explore why carbon is such an important element, and how organic chemistry is related to your life.

Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups

2. Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups

If you've ever wondered what gives vinegar that sour flavor, you may not realize that you have contemplated functional groups. View this lesson for an introduction to organic chemistry, functional groups and how they are part of your daily life.

Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers

3. Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers

From everyday man-made items like milk jugs and styrofoam to natural proteins and plant materials, the world is full of polymers! Check out this lesson to learn how polymers are constructed on a molecular level.

Structure and Function of Carbohydrates

4. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.

Structure and Function of Lipids

5. Structure and Function of Lipids

Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.

Proteins I: Structure and Function

6. Proteins I: Structure and Function

We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.

Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids

7. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids

How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.

Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds

8. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds

In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.

Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure

9. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure

How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.

Organic Chemical Reactions: Addition, Substitution, Polymerization & Cracking

10. Organic Chemical Reactions: Addition, Substitution, Polymerization & Cracking

Organic molecules can combine, swap atoms, break apart and even make more of themselves. In this lesson, we will explore several organic reactions with examples.

Organic Chemical Reactions: Redox, Esterification & Fermentation

11. Organic Chemical Reactions: Redox, Esterification & Fermentation

There are many different types of reactions that occur in organic chemistry. This lesson will highlight three reactions, explaining which organic molecules are the reactants and which are the products, as well as what occurs during the reaction.

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