About This Chapter
Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
This chapter is designed to provide you with information about two forms of matter: liquids and solids. In addition to their properties, you'll learn how these substances can change in response to energy, pressure or temperature. A key part of the lesson covers the six stages a substance undergoes at different temperatures and how phase changes are diagramed. When you finish the chapter, you should also be familiar with the following topics:
- Kinetic molecular energy and the movement of molecular particles
- Phase diagrams and their use in chemistry calculations
- Heating curves or temperature plots
- Crystal structures, including how atoms are arranged in liquids and solids
|The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Solids and Liquids||Use kinetic molecular theory to explain the movement of particles and properties of liquids and solids|
|Phase Diagrams: Critical Point, Triple Point and Phase Equilibrium Boundaries||Calculate critical and triple points and phase equilibrium with phase diagrams|
|Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation and Deposition||Explain the process of evaporation, condensation, freezing and melting|
|Heat of Fusion and Evaporation||Define and explain heat of fusion and vaporization|
|Phase Diagram of Water||Describe the differences between the phase diagrams for water and other substances|
|Phase Changes and Heating Curves||Discuss the phase change process and interpret a heating curve|
|Crystal Structure of the Unit Cell||Describe the different types of crystal structures and unit cells|
1. The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Solids and Liquids
This lesson explores the kinetic molecular theory and how it pertains to the properties of solids and liquids. You'll learn the properties of solids and liquids, discover the types of intermolecular attractions that occur between them and gain an understanding how phase changes happen.
2. Phase Diagrams: Critical Point, Triple Point and Phase Equilibrium Boundaries
Learn what a phase diagram is and how to interpret phase diagrams. Discover how to use a phase diagram to locate the phase equilibrium boundaries. Also, learn what a triple point and critical point are and how to locate them on a phase diagram.
3. Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation & Deposition
Substances on Earth can exist in one of four phases, but mostly, they exist in one of three: solid, liquid or gas. Learn the six changes of phase: freezing, melting, condensation, vaporization, sublimation and deposition.
4. Heat of Fusion & Heat of Vaporization: Definitions & Equations
When a substance changes states, like from a solid to a liquid, a lot is happening. This lesson will examine the heat of fusion and the heat of vaporization. It will also explain both formulas.
5. Phase Diagram of Water vs Other Substances: Differences & Meaning
Phase diagrams give scientists specific information about how phase changes occur at different pressures and temperatures. This lesson examines phase diagrams, focusing on water and how it's a little different from most other substances.
6. Phase Changes and Heating Curves
Learn the phases - gas, liquid, solid and plasma. Learn what a phase diagram is and what terms describe the movement between phases: melting, sublimating, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and deposition. Discover why heating curves have plateaus, what a phase transition is, and what happens during this transition.
7. Crystal Structures and the Unit Cell
This crystallography lesson explores the structure and properties of crystals. You'll learn about the parts of a crystal structure, types of crystals and patterns created by unit cells.
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Other chapters within the Chemistry: High School course
- Introduction to Chemistry
- Measurement and Problem Solving
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- What Is Matter?
- Understanding Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table of Elements
- The Representative Elements of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Bonding for High School Chemistry
- Gases in Chemistry
- Solutions in Chemistry
- Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- Acids, Bases and Reactions
- Chemistry Kinetics
- Thermodynamics in Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry Basics
- Teaching Resources for High School Chemistry