About This Chapter
Physiology: Nervous, Immune, Endocrine Systems - Chapter Summary
This chapter covers several systems in the human body, including the nervous system, immune system and endocrine system. Our simple and engaging lessons examine how the human body regulates its temperature and how it fights pathogens, viruses and inflammation. The chapter also goes over concepts such as neuron structure and functionality, as well as the different types of nervous systems.
To make sure that you fully understand the chapter's most important concepts and definitions, you're encouraged to take the accompanying self-assessment quiz that comes with each lesson. If you get stuck and have a question, feel free to reach out to our instructions who are available to help you out. To make your learning experience easy and convenient, you can access the chapter online any time and on any desktop, laptop, tablet or mobile device. This chapter will teach you things like:
- How the human body regulates its temperature and achieves homeostasis
- The structure and functionality of the human nervous system
- How neurons function
- The types of nervous systems, including central, peripheral, sympathetic and parasympathetic
- How the human immune system fights inflammation
- Why antibiotics and vaccines help people gain acquired immunity
- How viruses like the flu and HIV evade the immune system
- What pathogens are resistant to antibiotics
1. Homeostasis and Temperature Regulation in Humans
Do you wonder how your body is able to maintain a consistent temperature? Have you ever questioned why you get goosebumps when you're cold? This lesson will introduce you to homeostasis and answer your questions about body temperature regulation and reactions, like goosebumps.
2. Functions of the Nervous System
In this lesson, we'll watch Timmy as he plays in his backyard. Watch what happens when he tries to catch a butterfly, hears a mean dog bark, and scrapes his knee. All of Timmy's reactions are tied to his nervous system. For a full explanation of what goes on in the human nervous system, check out the video!
3. The Structure and Function of Neurons
In this video lesson, you'll learn about neurons, which are specialized cells in the nervous system. Check out how far neurons can send signals throughout the body and how depolarization is much like 'the wave' at a football game.
4. The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
Did you know that hammerhead sharks and platypuses share a special type of sensory neuron that humans and most other animals don't have? In this lesson, you'll find out what that sensory neuron and a whole lot of others can do. You'll also learn how the nervous system is organized and the differences between the central and peripheral nervous systems.
5. The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
In this lesson, you'll learn about two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system - the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Watch as a hiker, Phil, runs away from a terrifying bear and see how these systems react to the impending danger!
6. Innate Immunity: Inflammation, Neutrophils & Natural Killer Cells
You might already know how your body handles known infectious agents but how about unknown? Watch this video to explore your innate immune system - your body's defense against new bacteria and viruses.
7. Acquired Immunity: T Cells, B Cells and Antibodies
Have you ever wondered why some people don't ever seem to get sick? These people likely have an acquired immunity. Learn more about the immune system and how exposure to an illness one time can help your body to prevent that illness from ever occurring again.
8. Antibiotics and Vaccines
Do you know why children must get regularly vaccinated? Have you ever wondered how an antibiotic works and why they are so widely prescribed? If so, this lesson will help you to understand how changes in medicine have almost eliminated several deadly diseases and added decades to the average person's lifespan.
9. Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion
Why is it that our immune systems can protect us from some viruses but not others? We've eradicated smallpox by using vaccines, so why do influenza and HIV remain such dangerous health risks? In this lesson about viruses, we'll explore these questions and learn how influenza and HIV continue to evade the human immune system.
10. Pathogens: Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence
Find out more about how the overuse of antibiotics could lead to some serious problems with epidemics or untreatable diseases in the future. You can also discover some of the things that make pathogens harmful and why pathogens don't cause disease in every species they infect.
11. Structures & Functions of the Endocrine System
This lesson will cover the basics of the endocrine system. We will discuss different types of hormones, and examine how the glands and hormones work together to make up this system.
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