# Ch 13: Probability and Statistics

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### About This Chapter

## Probability and Statistics

Welcome to our video lesson series on probability and statistics. In these videos you'll learn how probability and statistics measure, predict and analyze the numerical outcomes of events.The study of statistics analyzes the results of events that occurred in the past, whereas probability study examines the potential outcomes of future events.

Let's take a look at some concepts, graphs and terms we'll cover.

We'll examine bar graphs and pie charts, coaching you on how to properly read and interpret them. Other tables we'll look at include relative and cumulative frequency tables, which you can use to calculate increases and decreases in percentages. You'll also learn what a standard deviation is and what shifts in them signify in terms of statistical averages.

Ever hear of mean, median, mode and range? You'll learn the differences between these statistics and how to calculate them.

You'll also learn about types of events that express probability, including simple, compound, complementary, independent and dependent. You'll learn what the outcomes of these events are and how you can calculate said probability. Other topics covered include the 'at least one' rule of independent events, permutations, math combinations and more.

There's certainly a lot to cover, but with these fun animated video lessons, there's a high probability that you'll be a statistical wiz in little time. Thanks for watching!

### 1. Understanding Bar Graphs and Pie Charts

In this lesson, we will examine two of the most widely used types of graphs: bar graphs and pie charts. These two graphs can provide the reader with a comparison of the different data that is displayed.

### 2. How to Calculate Percent Increase with Relative & Cumulative Frequency Tables

In statistics, one way to describe and analyze data is by using frequency tables. This lesson will discuss relative and cumulative frequencies and how to calculate percent increase using these two methods.

### 3. How to Calculate Mean, Median, Mode & Range

Measures of central tendency can provide valuable information about a set of data. In this lesson, explore how to calculate the mean, median, mode and range of any given data set.

### 4. Calculating the Standard Deviation

In this lesson, we will examine the meaning and process of calculating the standard deviation of a data set. Standard deviation can help to determine if the data set is a normal distribution.

### 5. Probability of Simple, Compound and Complementary Events

Simple, compound, and complementary events are different types of probabilities. Each of these probabilities are calculated in a slightly different fashion. In this lesson, we will look at some real world examples of these different forms of probability.

### 6. Probability of Independent and Dependent Events

Sometimes probabilities need to be calculated when more than one event occurs. These types of compound events are called independent and dependent events. Through this lesson, we will look at some real-world examples of how to calculate these probabilities.

### 7. Either/Or Probability: Overlapping and Non-Overlapping Events

Statistics is the study and interpretation of a set of data. One area of statistics is the study of probability. This lesson will describe how to determine the either/or probability of overlapping and non-overlapping events.

### 8. Probability of Independent Events: The 'At Least One' Rule

Occasionally when calculating independent events, it is only important that the event happens once. This is referred to as the 'At Least One' Rule. To calculate this type of problem, we will use the process of complementary events to find the probability of our event occurring at least once.

### 9. How to Calculate Simple Conditional Probabilities

Conditional probability, just like it sounds, is a probability that happens on the condition of a previous event occurring. To calculate conditional probabilities, we must first consider the effects of the previous event on the current event.

### 10. Math Combinations: Formula and Example Problems

Combinations are an arrangement of objects where order does not matter. In this lesson, the coach of the Wildcats basketball team uses combinations to help his team prepare for the upcoming season.

### 11. How to Calculate the Probability of Combinations

To calculate the probability of a combination, you will need to consider the number of favorable outcomes over the number of total outcomes. Combinations are used to calculate events where order does not matter. In this lesson, we will explore the connection between these two essential topics.

### 12. How to Calculate a Permutation

A permutation is a method used to calculate the total outcomes of a situation where order is important. In this lesson, John will use permutations to help him organize the cards in his poker hand and order a pizza.

### 13. How to Calculate the Probability of Permutations

In this lesson, you will learn how to calculate the probability of a permutation by analyzing a real-world example in which the order of the events does matter. We'll also review what a factorial is. We will then go over some examples for practice.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the Math 102: College Mathematics course

- Math Foundations
- Linear Equations
- Solving and Graphing Inequalities
- Graphing and Factoring Quadratic Equations
- Complex and Imaginary Numbers
- Properties of Exponents
- Properties of Polynomials
- Simplifying and Solving Rational Expressions
- Properties of Functions
- Logarithms and Exponential Equations
- Logic
- Sets
- Geometry
- Studying for Math 102