About This Chapter
Who's It For?
Anyone who needs help understanding material from Analytical Chemistry will benefit from taking this course. You will be able to grasp the subject matter faster, retain critical knowledge longer and earn better grades. You're in the right place if you:
- Have fallen behind in understanding the methods used to calculate solution concentration, dilution and pH.
- Need an efficient way to learn the properties of solutions.
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- Struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD.
- Experience difficulty understanding your teachers.
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- Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
- Watch and learn from fun videos, reviewing as needed.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Submit questions to one of our instructors for personalized support if you need extra help.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Properties of Solutions chapter exam.
Why It Works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
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Students Will Review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:
- What's the difference between a solute and a solvent?
- What factors affect the rate of dissolution?
- How do I distinguish electrolytes from nonelectrolytes?
- What kind of information can be found on a solubility curve?
- What steps are involved in molarity and molality calculations?
- How do I determine the dilution of a solution?
- What are colligative properties?
- What are the applications of Raoult's law?
- How do I calculate solution pH?
1. Solutions, Solutes, and Solvents
Oh no! Your friend Ben just drank chili oil on a dare, and now his mouth is burning. Should he drink the ice water or vegetable oil to cool his mouth? Quick. Watch this lesson if you aren't sure.
2. The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition
Learn what dissolution is and the factors that affect the rate of dissolution, such as temperature, surface area, polarity and pressure. Learn what miscible and immiscible mean in regards to liquids.
3. Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
Learn what a solution is and how it is formed. Learn how to express the concentration of a solution in terms of molarity, molality and mass percent. Discover the differences between an electrolyte and a nonelectrolyte.
4. Solubility and Solubility Curves
Learn what solubility is as well as the definitions of 'saturated,' 'unsaturated' and 'supersaturated.' Learn how to determine the solubility of a substance in water by using a solubility curve. Discover the effects of pressure and temperature on the solubility of liquids, solids and gases.
5. Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration
Learn what molarity and molality are and how to calculate each one. Learn that molarity is abbreviated as M and is moles of solute per liter of solution and that molality is abbreviated as m and is moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
6. Calculating Dilution of Solutions
Learn what a solution is and how to properly dilute a new solution from a stock solution. Learn the dilution equation that combines molarity, the volume of stock solution and desired solution to determine how much stock solution is needed for the new solution.
7. Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar Mass
In this lesson, we will explore the effect of colligative properties on a solution. We will learn how to calculate freezing point depression and see how it can be used to calculate the molar mass of an unknown substance.
8. Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law
Learn how vapor pressure and osmotic pressure are colligative properties. Learn Raoult's Law and how to use it to determine the vapor pressure of a solution. Learn the equation for determining osmotic pressure and how to use it to determine the molar mass of a substance.
9. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution
Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.
10. What is Sodium Chloride? - Definition, Structure & Formula
Sodium chloride is a compound formed from the ionic bonding of sodium and chloride. The result is a salt that is very important biologically and commercially. This article discusses sodium chloride, its properties, and its uses.
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