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Ch 5: Respiratory System: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The Respiratory System chapter of this Human Anatomy and Physiology Help and Review course is the simplest way to master an understanding of the respiratory system. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of the respiratory system.

Who's it for?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering human anatomy and physiology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn human anatomy and physiology. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding ventilation or the respiratory system
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about the respiratory system
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources

How it works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Respiratory System chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Respiratory System chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any respiratory system question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students will review:

In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:

  • What are the major anatomical structures of the airway and lungs?
  • What are the functions of the pleural cavities and membranes?
  • How do the ventilation muscles cause inspiration and expiration?
  • How does the nature of the respiratory surface affect gas exchange?
  • How does pulmonary surfactant decrease surface tension and facilitate ventilation?
  • How do partial pressure gradients drive gas exchange across the respiratory membrane?
  • What is the difference between internal and external respiration?
  • How does hemoglobin transport oxygen in the blood?
  • How does oxygen bind with hemoglobin?
  • How do pH, metabolism and temperature affect hemoglobin and oxygen transport?
  • What role does carbonic anhydrase play in transporting carbon dioxide in the blood?
  • How does the autonomic nervous system regulate ventilation?
  • How do pulmonary function tests work?

55 Lessons in Chapter 5: Respiratory System: Help and Review
Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Conducting & Respiratory Zones

1. Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Conducting & Respiratory Zones

The respiratory system includes the lungs as well as other organs that help to get oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide out of the blood. The conducting zone of the respiratory system carries oxygen into the lungs and carbon dioxide out of the lungs. The respiratory zone is where oxygen and carbon dioxide move into and out of the blood.

Function of Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes

2. Function of Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes

Each lung is contained within a pleural cavity, the space between the outside of the lung and inside of the chest wall. Pleural membranes cover the outside of the lungs and line the inside of the chest wall. The lungs remain expanded when we breathe due to a vacuum effect within the pleural cavity.

How Ventilation Muscles Cause Inspiration and Expiration

3. How Ventilation Muscles Cause Inspiration and Expiration

What is ventilation? It includes both inspiration and expiration, the movement of air into and out of our lungs. In this lesson, learn about how the diaphragm contracts and relaxes and its impact on lung volume.

The Respiratory Surface and Gas Exchange Efficiency

4. The Respiratory Surface and Gas Exchange Efficiency

The respiratory membrane includes millions of alveoli with a surface area as large as a tennis court. This large respiratory surface area, combined with other factors, makes for efficient gas exchange to meet our metabolic needs.

Pulmonary Surfactant Function and Ventilation

5. Pulmonary Surfactant Function and Ventilation

Our lungs are lined with a thin layer of water. The water creates surface tension, which makes it difficult for the lungs to expand and allow for gas exchange. Pulmonary surfactant is made by our lungs and decreases the surface tension so we can breathe.

Gas Exchange: Diffusion & Partial Pressure Gradients

6. Gas Exchange: Diffusion & Partial Pressure Gradients

If you've ever experienced shortness of breath on top of a mountain, this lesson is for you. Oxygen and carbon dioxide move into and out of our blood by diffusion. The rate of diffusion is determined by partial pressure gradients across the respiratory membrane in our lungs. Partial pressure is a function of both concentration and atmospheric pressure.

External and Internal Respiration in the Lungs: Definition & Process

7. External and Internal Respiration in the Lungs: Definition & Process

This lesson explores the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide get into and out of the blood located in the lungs and in our metabolizing tissues. The partial pressure gradient for each gas determines both the direction and rate of diffusion across the respiratory membrane.

Gas Transport: Oxygen and Hemoglobin

8. Gas Transport: Oxygen and Hemoglobin

Did you know that almost all of the oxygen transported in our blood is bound to hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is loaded with oxygen in the lungs and unloaded of oxygen in the metabolizing tissues. This lesson will describe how oxygen is transported in our blood.

Gas Transport: Cooperative Binding of Oxygen with Hemoglobin

9. Gas Transport: Cooperative Binding of Oxygen with Hemoglobin

Our cells need oxygen. Most of the oxygen is delivered to our cells bound to hemoglobin. This lesson describes how cooperative binding of hemoglobin maximizes oxygen delivery to our metabolizing tissues.

Gas Transport: Effect of Temperature, pH & Metabolism

10. Gas Transport: Effect of Temperature, pH & Metabolism

Hemoglobin carries almost all the oxygen to our metabolizing tissues. This lesson discusses physiological factors that stimulate hemoglobin to unload oxygen in our tissues. For example, temperature, carbon dioxide, pH and metabolism all influence the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.

Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood

11. Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood

While carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste product, it plays some important physiological roles as well. This lesson describes how carbon dioxide is transported in our blood, how carbon dioxide is converted into a pH buffer, and how carbon dioxide helps with oxygen transport.

Autonomic Breathing: How Ventilation is Regulated

12. Autonomic Breathing: How Ventilation is Regulated

Did you know that our nervous system controls our breathing? This lesson describes the basic elements of the homeostatic system responsible for balancing oxygen supply with metabolic demand.

What Are Pulmonary Function Tests?

13. What Are Pulmonary Function Tests?

Pulmonary function tests are used to measure air movement into and out of the lungs. Spirometry is the most common way to measure airflow. This lesson will describe the use of spirometry to measure lung volumes and flow rates as well as how breathing disorders are diagnosed.

Airway Resistance: Definition, Formula & Issues

14. Airway Resistance: Definition, Formula & Issues

In this lesson, you'll discover what airway resistance means and learn two different ways of calculating it. You'll also uncover issues with calculating a true airway resistance.

Bronchioles: Definition & Function

15. Bronchioles: Definition & Function

The trachea, commonly known as the 'windpipe,' branches off to allow air to go into each of our two lungs. Once there, the branching doesn't stop. Progressively smaller tubes called bronchioles ensure that air reaches all different parts of the lungs.

Endothelial Cells: Function & Explanation

16. Endothelial Cells: Function & Explanation

Endothelial cells account for about 1 kilogram of an adult human body, which is on par with the liver. They line the inside of all blood vessels - from large arteries to tiny capillaries. This lesson covers their basic functions, as well as more specialized ones, like keeping bacteria out of our brain.

Heme Group: Hemoglobin & Definition

17. Heme Group: Hemoglobin & Definition

You've probably heard that something described as 'blood red.' But why, exactly, is blood red? The answer to this questions lies with a molecule called hemoglobin. In this lesson, we'll explore what hemoglobin is, how it works, and the role it plays in making horror movies so visually appealing.

Trachea: Function, Meaning & System

18. Trachea: Function, Meaning & System

This lesson will describe the function and basic anatomy of your trachea, which is an important structure within your respiratory system. A post-lesson quiz will test what you have learned.

Bradypnea: Definition, Causes & Symptoms

19. Bradypnea: Definition, Causes & Symptoms

What are normal versus slow respiratory rates? Learn to identify bradypnea and learn what causes the respiratory rate to decrease. Recognize available treatment of bradypnea, and take a quiz to test your knowledge.

Cor Pulmonale: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

20. Cor Pulmonale: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Cor pulmonale is also known as right-sided heart failure because the right ventricle becomes enlarged and eventually stops working. Read this lesson to learn what causes cor pulmonale, the resulting symptoms, and possible treatment options.

Cyanosis: Definition, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

21. Cyanosis: Definition, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Cyanosis causes the body to develop a bluish tint to it, due to inadequate oxygen in the bloodstream. It can affect the entire body or be limited to certain areas. Watch this lesson to learn the causes, symptoms, and treatment options.

Hemoptysis: Definition, Causes & Treatment

22. Hemoptysis: Definition, Causes & Treatment

Hemoptysis is a medical condition in which a person coughs up blood. It can be due to a minor infection or a life-threatening medical emergency. Complete this lesson to learn about causes, symptoms, and treatment options.

Hemothorax: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

23. Hemothorax: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

A hemothorax is a condition where blood pools in between the wall of the chest and the lung. In this lesson, you'll learn what causes a hemothorax, what the symptoms are, and what methods are used to treat the condition.

Hypercapnia: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

24. Hypercapnia: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Hypercapnia is when excessive carbon dioxide collects in the blood stream. Check out this lesson to learn about why this happens, what causes it, what the symptoms are, and what the possible treatment options are for this condition.

Orthopnea: Definition, Causes & Symptoms

25. Orthopnea: Definition, Causes & Symptoms

Sometimes patients can exhibit subtle symptoms of potentially big problems. In this lesson you will learn about a condition called orthopnea, which can occur with patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing only while lying in a flat position. While orthopnea may seem minor, it might indicate a serious problem.

Rhonchi Lung Sounds: Definition, Causes & Treatment

26. Rhonchi Lung Sounds: Definition, Causes & Treatment

The lungs can produce an abnormal noise called rhonchi. Learn about its distinct sound and the conditions that cause it. Then learn how each condition is treated to stop rhonchi.

Stridor Breath Sounds: Definition, Causes & Treatment

27. Stridor Breath Sounds: Definition, Causes & Treatment

From this lesson you will learn about an abnormal sound that a person can produce when breathing. The reasons they occur in children are different when compared to adults. Treatment depends on the cause and severity of the problems.

Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URI): Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

28. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URI): Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are one of the most common conditions seen by primary care providers. Learn more about the causes, signs and symptoms, and the treatment of this common condition. Complete a quiz to evaluate your understanding.

What Is a Cannula? - Definition & Placement

29. What Is a Cannula? - Definition & Placement

In this lesson, we will identify and describe two types of cannulas: nasal and intravenous. We will also examine how providers place these types of cannulas into the patient's body.

What Is Acrocyanosis? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms

30. What Is Acrocyanosis? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms

Acrocyanosis is a rare condition where blood does not receive enough oxygen and causes the extremities to turn a bluish color. Read this lesson to learn more about the causes, symptoms, and possible treatment options for this peculiar condition!

What Is Albuterol? - Uses & Side Effects

31. What Is Albuterol? - Uses & Side Effects

Albuterol has been used in the treatment of asthma and other respiratory conditions since 1980. Read about its action, how it helps prevent respiratory distress, and possible side effects.

What Is ARDS? - Definition, Symptoms, Criteria & Treatment

32. What Is ARDS? - Definition, Symptoms, Criteria & Treatment

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is often a condition that results from another illness or trauma. Read this lesson to learn about ARDS, what the symptoms are, how it's treated, and the likely aftermath of experiencing ARDS.

What Is Asphyxia? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms

33. What Is Asphyxia? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms

Asphyxia is a condition where the body doesn't get enough oxygen. If left untreated, it can cause coma or death. This lesson will discuss the different causes and symptoms associated with asphyxia.

What Is Bronchiectasis? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

34. What Is Bronchiectasis? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Bronchiectasis is a lung disorder where the airways are permanently over-stretched due to mucus buildup. Read this lesson to learn what causes this condition, as well as what the symptoms and treatment options are.

What Is Bronchitis? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

35. What Is Bronchitis? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

In the following lesson you will learn about types of bronchitis and how this condition effects breathing. You will learn the best ways to treat bronchitis as well as when to be concerned about a cough.

What Is Bronchoscopy? - Definition, Anatomy & Complications

36. What Is Bronchoscopy? - Definition, Anatomy & Complications

In this lesson, we will learn about a procedure known as bronchoscopy. We will explore how this procedure helps diagnose conditions, treat conditions, and retrieve objects stuck in the respiratory tract. Potential complications will also be covered.

What Is Croup? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

37. What Is Croup? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

From this lesson you will learn about a respiratory condition called croup that mainly occurs in children. You will know the distinct characteristics of croup and how it is treated based on its severity.

What Is Emphysema? - Definition, Causes Symptoms & Treatment

38. What Is Emphysema? - Definition, Causes Symptoms & Treatment

In this lesson, we will learn about emphysema, which is the most common respiratory disease. We will learn about the symptoms and causes of emphysema and the many different treatment options available.

What Is Empyema? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

39. What Is Empyema? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

Infections affect the body in many different ways. In this lesson, we will define empyema and discuss its causes and treatment. Like many infections, treatment options must be addressed.

What Is Hyperventilation? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

40. What Is Hyperventilation? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Have you ever suddenly started breathing very fast and been unable to catch your breath? Why does this happen? Read this lesson to find out the causes of hyperventilation, the symptoms, and how to treat it!

What Is Hypoventilation? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms

41. What Is Hypoventilation? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms

Hypoventilation is a breathing disorder that can potentially be very serious. Continue reading to learn more about hypoventilation, including the definition, causes and symptoms.

What Is Hypoxemia? - Definition, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

42. What Is Hypoxemia? - Definition, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

This lesson will define what hypoxemia is, the symptoms associated with it, and potential causes. Additionally, we will discuss the treatments for this life-threatening disorder.

What Is Hypoxia? - Definition, Types, Symptoms & Causes

43. What Is Hypoxia? - Definition, Types, Symptoms & Causes

Understanding basic medical terminology is important for both patients and students. In this lesson, you'll learn about hypoxia, a common term used throughout the medical field in relation to a variety of diagnoses.

What Is Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS)? - Long-Term Effects & Treatment

44. What Is Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS)? - Long-Term Effects & Treatment

Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) is a potentially serious medical condition that affects newborn infants. Learn more about MAS, its long-term effects and treatment.

What Is Pleural Effusion? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

45. What Is Pleural Effusion? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

A pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluids in the space between the chest wall and the lungs. Read this lesson to learn why this might happen, what the symptoms are if it does, and how the condition is treated.

What Is Pleurisy? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

46. What Is Pleurisy? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

What is pleurisy? Well, it's a condition that affects the lining of the lungs, and it can make breathing extremely painful and difficult. Read this lesson to learn what causes pleurisy, what the symptoms are, and how it's treated.

What Is Pneumonia? - Definition, Types, Symptoms & Treatment

47. What Is Pneumonia? - Definition, Types, Symptoms & Treatment

Pneumonia is a serious lung infection that can affect anyone. Read this lesson to learn more about the different types of pneumonia, the symptoms associated with each, and how the infection is treated.

What Is Postural Drainage? - Definition, Therapy Techniques & Positions

48. What Is Postural Drainage? - Definition, Therapy Techniques & Positions

This lesson will introduce you to the concept of postural drainage. It will also familiarize you with the techniques and positions established to effectively use this therapy. A short quiz follows the lesson.

What Is Pulmonary Edema? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

49. What Is Pulmonary Edema? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Pulmonary edema severely impacts the lives of those suffering from it. This lesson will define pulmonary edema, what causes it, symptoms, and how to treat it to assist in your understanding of pulmonary edema.

What Is Sputum? - Definition, Culture & Types

50. What Is Sputum? - Definition, Culture & Types

In this lesson we will first discover what sputum is. We will then discuss how and why sputum is cultured, go over the different types of cultures and learn how to utilize the results of the culture.

What Is Tachypnea? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

51. What Is Tachypnea? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

Tachypnea is a condition that causes rapid and shallow breathing due to an imbalance between carbon dioxide and oxygen in the body. In this lesson, learn why it happens and what the symptoms are.

What Is Thoracentesis? - Definition, Procedure & Complications

52. What Is Thoracentesis? - Definition, Procedure & Complications

The human body needs fluid to survive, but there is such thing as too much of a good thing. In such cases, excess fluid has to be removed, and one method of doing so is a process called thoracentesis. Read this lesson to learn more!

Wheeze: Definition & Causes

53. Wheeze: Definition & Causes

Learn about the respiratory symptom called a wheeze. Know how it sounds in the lungs and about the conditions that cause it; the five I's- inflammation, irritation, infection, injury and illness and then test your knowledge with a quiz.

Examples of Homeostatic Control Mechanisms

54. Examples of Homeostatic Control Mechanisms

Why do people sweat when they run? What do your kidneys really do? This lesson answers those questions through an investigation into homeostatic control mechanisms. A brief summary and quiz are included.

Microvilli vs. Cilia: Structure & Size

55. Microvilli vs. Cilia: Structure & Size

Even though microvilli and cilia may appear similar at first glance, they are very different. This lesson discusses the similarities and many differences between these two microscopic cellular structures.

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