About This Chapter
Solutions in Chemistry - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
In this chapter you'll learn how one chemical substance, such as a beverage, a household cleaner or water, dissolves in another. When you complete this chapter, you should be able to define a solution and identify some different types. You'll also be familiar with some of the scientific calculations used in the study of solutions, such as Raoult's Law. Among other topics, this chapter can provide you with information about the following:
- The rate of dissolution and how fast a solute develops in a solvent
- Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes, substances that do and do not conduct electricity
- Solubility and how substances dissolve in water
- Common salts, such as ammonium, chloride, hydroxide and iodide
- Molarity and molality and how to measure concentrations of solutions
- Colligative properties, such as freezing and boiling points
|The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition||Identify the factors that affect the rate of dissolution, and explain how molecular interactions add to the enthalpy of solution.|
|Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes||Discuss how a solution is formed, including the differences between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes. Compare the dissolution of ionic and covalent compounds.|
|Solubility and Solubility Curves||Determine the solubility of a substance in water, and explain the effects of pressure and temperature on solubility.|
|Solubility of Common Salts||Discuss the solubility of common salts, and predict the outcome of chemical reactions.|
|Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration||Calculate concentrations of molarity or molality.|
|Calculating Dilution of Solutions||Make dilution calculations.|
|Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law||Describe the main colligative properties, including vapor-pressure lowering, freezing-point depression, boiling-point elevation and osmotic pressure. Calculate the expected change in freezing point and boiling point of a solution.|
|Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar Mass||Use the given freezing-point depression of an experimental solution to calculate the molar mass of an unknown substance.|
|Solubility of Gases||Discuss the solubility of gas, and illustrate with an experiment.|
1. The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition
Learn what dissolution is and the factors that affect the rate of dissolution, such as temperature, surface area, polarity and pressure. Learn what miscible and immiscible mean in regards to liquids.
2. Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
Learn what a solution is and how it is formed. Learn how to express the concentration of a solution in terms of molarity, molality and mass percent. Discover the differences between an electrolyte and a nonelectrolyte.
3. Solubility and Solubility Curves
Learn what solubility is as well as the definitions of 'saturated,' 'unsaturated' and 'supersaturated.' Learn how to determine the solubility of a substance in water by using a solubility curve. Discover the effects of pressure and temperature on the solubility of liquids, solids and gases.
4. Solubility of Common Salts: Predicting Reaction Outcomes
Ever wondered why some salts dissolve in water and others don't? In this lesson you will learn about some simple salt solubility rules. Using these rules, you will be able to predict the products of many chemical reactions.
5. Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration
Learn what molarity and molality are and how to calculate each one. Learn that molarity is abbreviated as M and is moles of solute per liter of solution and that molality is abbreviated as m and is moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
6. Calculating Dilution of Solutions
Learn what a solution is and how to properly dilute a new solution from a stock solution. Learn the dilution equation that combines molarity, the volume of stock solution and desired solution to determine how much stock solution is needed for the new solution.
7. Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law
Learn how vapor pressure and osmotic pressure are colligative properties. Learn Raoult's Law and how to use it to determine the vapor pressure of a solution. Learn the equation for determining osmotic pressure and how to use it to determine the molar mass of a substance.
8. Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar Mass
In this lesson, we will explore the effect of colligative properties on a solution. We will learn how to calculate freezing point depression and see how it can be used to calculate the molar mass of an unknown substance.
9. The Solubility of Gases in a Liquid
In this video lesson, you will learn what solubility is and the factors that affect gas solubility. We will use real-life examples to illustrate the importance of understanding solubility. A quick quiz will then test our new knowledge.
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Other chapters within the Chemistry: High School course
- Introduction to Chemistry
- Measurement and Problem Solving
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- What Is Matter?
- Understanding Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table of Elements
- The Representative Elements of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Bonding for High School Chemistry
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- Gases in Chemistry
- Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- Acids, Bases and Reactions
- Chemistry Kinetics
- Thermodynamics in Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry Basics
- Teaching Resources for High School Chemistry