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Ch 12: Solutions in Chemistry

About This Chapter

Watch video lessons and learn about the different types of solutions found in chemistry. Take quick quizzes to make sure you understand the subject matter.

Solutions in Chemistry - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

In this chapter you'll learn how one chemical substance, such as a beverage, a household cleaner or water, dissolves in another. When you complete this chapter, you should be able to define a solution and identify some different types. You'll also be familiar with some of the scientific calculations used in the study of solutions, such as Raoult's Law. Among other topics, this chapter can provide you with information about the following:

  • The rate of dissolution and how fast a solute develops in a solvent
  • Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes, substances that do and do not conduct electricity
  • Solubility and how substances dissolve in water
  • Common salts, such as ammonium, chloride, hydroxide and iodide
  • Molarity and molality and how to measure concentrations of solutions
  • Colligative properties, such as freezing and boiling points

VideoObjective
The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and DefinitionIdentify the factors that affect the rate of dissolution, and explain how molecular interactions add to the enthalpy of solution.
Solutions, Electrolytes and NonelectrolytesDiscuss how a solution is formed, including the differences between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes. Compare the dissolution of ionic and covalent compounds.
Solubility and Solubility CurvesDetermine the solubility of a substance in water, and explain the effects of pressure and temperature on solubility.
Solubility of Common SaltsDiscuss the solubility of common salts, and predict the outcome of chemical reactions.
Calculating Molarity and Molality ConcentrationCalculate concentrations of molarity or molality.
Calculating Dilution of Solutions Make dilution calculations.
Colligative Properties and Raoult's LawDescribe the main colligative properties, including vapor-pressure lowering, freezing-point depression, boiling-point elevation and osmotic pressure. Calculate the expected change in freezing point and boiling point of a solution.
Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar MassUse the given freezing-point depression of an experimental solution to calculate the molar mass of an unknown substance.
Solubility of GasesDiscuss the solubility of gas, and illustrate with an experiment.

9 Lessons in Chapter 12: Solutions in Chemistry
The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition

1. The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition

Learn what dissolution is and the factors that affect the rate of dissolution, such as temperature, surface area, polarity and pressure. Learn what miscible and immiscible mean in regards to liquids.

Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes

2. Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes

Learn what a solution is and how it is formed. Learn how to express the concentration of a solution in terms of molarity, molality and mass percent. Discover the differences between an electrolyte and a nonelectrolyte.

Solubility and Solubility Curves

3. Solubility and Solubility Curves

Learn what solubility is as well as the definitions of 'saturated,' 'unsaturated' and 'supersaturated.' Learn how to determine the solubility of a substance in water by using a solubility curve. Discover the effects of pressure and temperature on the solubility of liquids, solids and gases.

Solubility of Common Salts: Predicting Reaction Outcomes

4. Solubility of Common Salts: Predicting Reaction Outcomes

Ever wondered why some salts dissolve in water and others don't? In this lesson you will learn about some simple salt solubility rules. Using these rules, you will be able to predict the products of many chemical reactions.

Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration

5. Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration

Learn what molarity and molality are and how to calculate each one. Learn that molarity is abbreviated as M and is moles of solute per liter of solution and that molality is abbreviated as m and is moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Calculating Dilution of Solutions

6. Calculating Dilution of Solutions

Learn what a solution is and how to properly dilute a new solution from a stock solution. Learn the dilution equation that combines molarity, the volume of stock solution and desired solution to determine how much stock solution is needed for the new solution.

Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law

7. Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law

Learn how vapor pressure and osmotic pressure are colligative properties. Learn Raoult's Law and how to use it to determine the vapor pressure of a solution. Learn the equation for determining osmotic pressure and how to use it to determine the molar mass of a substance.

Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar Mass

8. Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar Mass

In this lesson, we will explore the effect of colligative properties on a solution. We will learn how to calculate freezing point depression and see how it can be used to calculate the molar mass of an unknown substance.

The Solubility of Gases in a Liquid

9. The Solubility of Gases in a Liquid

In this video lesson, you will learn what solubility is and the factors that affect gas solubility. We will use real-life examples to illustrate the importance of understanding solubility. A quick quiz will then test our new knowledge.

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