About This Chapter
The Age of Nationalism (1850-1914) - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Use this chapter to explore the political sentiments and ideologies prevalent in Europe during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. You can also examine the wars, reforms and allegiances that resulted in the breakdown of old empires and the birth of new nations. After completing this chapter, you should be able to identify:
- Power shifts in Austria, Hungary and Russia
- Factors leading to the unification of Italy and Germany
- Impact of developments in the U.S. and Canada on Europe
- Japanese political reforms resulting from American forays into the East
|The Crimean War: Summary, Causes & Effects||Learn about one in a series of wars during which two 'old' powers (Austria and Russia) were weakened.|
|The Unification of Italy: Summary, Timeline & Leaders||Learn about the series of leaders and events leading to the creation of the Kingdom of Italy.|
|The Unification of Germany: Summary, Timeline & Events||Be able to describe the series of events - occurring largely under the leadership of Otto Von Bismarck - that unified the German states into the 2nd Reich, or German Empire.|
|Creation of the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary||Understand the breakdown of the Austrian Empire and the formation of the new nation of Austria-Hungary.|
|Reforms in Russia Under Tsar Alexander II||Read about Tsar Alexander II and his liberal but limited reforms in Russia.|
|North America: the American Civil War and Dominion of Canada||Be able to explain the effects in Europe of the American Civil War and the creation of the Canadian Confederation from separate British colonies.|
|The Westernization of Japan During the Meiji Era||Explore the influence of Commodore Perry and the westernization of Japan in the Meiji Era.|
1. The Crimean War: Summary, Causes & Effects
In this lesson, we explore the Crimean War of 1854-1856 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, France, and Great Britain. It is often considered one of the more bungled military campaigns in recent Western history.
2. The Unification of Italy: Summary, Timeline & Leaders
In this lesson, we explore the piecemeal unification of Italy which took place in the 19th century. Created in part by the brilliant statesmen Camillo Benso di Cavour, Italy as we know it did not fully take shape until 1870.
3. The Unification of Germany: Summary, Timeline & Events
In this lesson, we explore the unification of Germany in the 1860s and 1870s, largely accomplished through the statecraft of the Chancellor of Prussia and later Germany, Otto von Bismarck.
4. Creation of the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary: History & Impact
In this lesson, we explore the 19th-century compromise between the Austrian monarchy and the ruling Magyar families of Hungary that created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
5. Reforms in Russia Under Tsar Alexander II: Examples & Impact
In this lesson, we explore the reforms of Tsar Alexander II in 19th-century Russia. Alexander freed the Russian serfs and accelerated the industrialization of Russia before his 1881 assassination.
6. North America: the American Civil War and Dominion of Canada
In this lesson, we explore the American Civil War's effects on European geopolitics and the remotely connected creation of the Dominion of Canada only a few years after the war's close.
7. The Westernization of Japan During the Meiji Era
In this lesson, we explore the opening of Japan to Western trade by Commodore Matthew Perry in the mid-18th century. We'll then look at the ensuing westernization of the country in the Meiji period.
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Other chapters within the History 102: Western Civilization II course
- Introduction to Western Civilization II
- Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe (1648-1715)
- Power Shifts in Eastern Europe (1648-1740)
- Empire and Expansion in the 18th Century (1700-1799)
- The Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment (1500-1790)
- The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte (1780-1815)
- Industrialization (1700-1900)
- Political Developments (1760-1848)
- European Life and Trends (1850-1914)
- Imperialism in the 19th and 20th Centuries
- World War I (1914-1919)
- Between the World Wars (1919-1939)
- World War II (1939-1945)
- Western Civilization Since 1945
- Studying for History 102