About This Chapter
The Endocrine System - Lessons and Learning Objectives
The endocrine system is a system of glands within the body that release hormones. These hormones help to trigger various functions within the body. In this chapter, you'll learn about the different hormones regulated by the endocrine system. You'll also learn about the different glands, like the pituitary gland, thyroid, pancreas and adrenal glands. Lessons will also cover the reproductive hormones in the testes, ovaries and placenta. Some of the specific things you will learn include:
- About feedback in the endocrine system
- The functions of the pituitary gland
- Thyroid disorders
- The hormones of the pancreas
- The functions of the adrenal cortex
- Hormones in the placenta
|Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System||Discover what the endocrine systems is and how it functions.|
|Positive and Negative Feedback in the Endocrine System||Learn about the way the endocrine system communicates within the body.|
|What is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus||Explore the pituitary gland and its functions.|
|The Hypothalamus's Relationship with the Pituitary Gland||Examine how the hypothalamus works with the pituitary gland.|
|Anterior Pituitary Gland: Function and Hormones||Study the anterior pituitary gland.|
|Posterior Pituitary Gland: Function and Hormones||Analyze the functions of the posterior pituitary gland.|
|Pituitary Dysfunction: Disorders and Symptoms||Discover dysfunctions of the pituitary gland.|
|The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH||Explore the thyroid.|
|Thyroid Disorders: Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism & Thyroidectomy||Find out more about thyroid disorders.|
|Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH||Examine the parathyroid gland.|
|Pancreas: Function and Anatomical Features||Study the functions and features of the pancreas.|
|Pancreas: Insulin Production and Glucose Metabolism||Learn about how the pancreas produces insulin.|
|Disorders of the Pancreas: Types, Symptoms & Treatments||Analyze what disorders occur with the pancreas.|
|Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla||Discover the function of the adrenal glands.|
|Adrenal Glands: Epinephrine, Norepinephrine & Stress Adaptation||Find out more about the adrenal glands and stress.|
|Adrenal Cortex: Functions and Androgens||Learn about the functions of the adrenal cortex.|
|Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone and Body Fluid Balance||Study aldosterone and body fluid balance as it relates to the adrenal cortex.|
|Adrenal Gland Disorders & Treatments: Addison's Disease and Prednisone||Examine disorders of the adrenal gland.|
|Pineal Gland, Functions, Melatonin & Circadian Rhythm||Explore the functions of the pineal gland.|
|Hormones of the Testes: Functions & Anatomical Features||Discover what hormones are produced in the testes.|
|Hormones of the Ovaries: Functions and Anatomical Features||Study the hormones of the ovaries.|
|Hormones of the Placenta: Estrogen, Progesterone & hCG||Learn what hormones are found in the placenta.|
1. Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System
This lesson introduces the endocrine system and provides a brief overview of each endocrine gland. It also provides the definition of hormones and describes their general function inside the body.
2. What Is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus
In this lesson, we'll discuss the functions of the anterior and posterior portions of the pituitary gland, the hormones they release and the relationship with the hypothalamus.
3. Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland: Names & Functions
The anterior pituitary gland secretes six hormones. In this lesson, you will learn the functions of the hormones: growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
4. The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH
Your thyroid gland produces the hormones T3 and thyroxine (T4), which play a role in metabolism. Your thyroid also produces calcitonin, which helps regulate blood calcium levels. In this lesson, you will learn about the thyroid gland and its hormones, including how they are regulated by TSH.
5. Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH
The parathyroid glands are tiny endocrine glands found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. In this lesson,, you will learn about the parathyroid glands, and the role parathyroid hormone plays in maintaining normal blood calcium levels.
6. Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy & Insulin Production
The islets of Langerhans within your pancreas produce the hormones insulin and glucagon. In this lesson, you will learn how these hormones regulate your blood sugar level in opposite ways.
7. Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla
The adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys and are comprised of an inner medulla region that is enclosed by the outer adrenal cortex. Both portions of the adrenal gland secrete hormones that regulate body functions and help maintain internal balance.
8. Adrenal Glands: Epinephrine, Norepinephrine & Stress Adaptation
The adrenal medulla is the central portion of the adrenal gland. In this lesson, you will learn about the two hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla - epinephrine and norepinephrine - and how they help you deal with short-term stressors.
9. Adrenal Cortex: Glucocorticoids and Androgens
The adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones. In this lesson, you will learn about two of these steroid hormones: glucocorticoids, which help you deal with long-term stress, and androgens, which influence male sexual characteristics.
10. Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone and Body Fluid Balance
Mineralocorticoids are a type of steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. In this lesson, you will learn about the main mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, and how it regulates your body's salt and water balance.
11. Pineal Gland, Functions, Melatonin & Circadian Rhythm
Deep inside your brain sits a very small endocrine gland called the pineal gland. This tiny gland secretes the hormone melatonin, and in this lesson, you will learn about the role melatonin plays in regulating sleep and wake cycles.
12. Hormones of the Testes and Ovaries: Functions & Anatomical Features
The testes and the ovaries secrete steroid hormones that help you grow and develop. In this lesson, we will learn about the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and the male hormone, testosterone, and how these hormones influence the development of secondary sex characteristics.
13. Hormones of the Placenta: Estrogen, Progesterone & hCG
The placenta is an endocrine gland that is only present during pregnancy. In this lesson, you will learn about the hormones it produces, including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, estrogen, and human placental lactogen (hPL).
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Other chapters within the Biology 105: Anatomy & Physiology course
- Overview of Anatomy and Cell Biology
- Human Respiratory System
- Cardiovascular System
- Blood Vessels
- Digestive System
- Urinary System
- The Brain
- The Nervous System at the Cellular Level
- The Five Senses
- Muscle Physiology
- Gross Anatomy of Muscular System
- Connective Tissue
- Skeletal System
- Male and Female Reproductive Systems
- Studying for Biology 105