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Ch 12: The Nervous System at the Cellular Level: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The Nervous System at the Cellular Level chapter of this Human Anatomy and Physiology Help and Review course is the simplest way to master an understanding of the nervous system at the cellular level. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of the nervous system at the cellular level.

Who's it for?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering human anatomy and physiology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn human anatomy and physiology. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding neurons or the nervous system at the cellular level
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about the nervous system at the cellular level
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources

How it works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Nervous System at the Cellular Level chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Nervous System at the Cellular Level chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any nervous system question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students will review:

In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:

  • What are the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?
  • How are homeostasis and temperature regulated in humans?
  • How do the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems respond to positive and negative feedback?
  • What are the structures and functions of neurons?
  • What are the different types of neurons?
  • How does the myelin sheath facilitate cell signaling?
  • How do neuroglia provide support and protection to neurons in the brain?
  • What are the types and functions of sensory nerves?
  • What are the functions of sensory nerves and receptors in muscles and tendons?

27 Lessons in Chapter 12: The Nervous System at the Cellular Level: Help and Review
The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems

1. The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems

In this lesson, you'll learn about two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system - the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Watch as a hiker, Phil, runs away from a terrifying bear and see how these systems react to the impending danger!

Functions of the Nervous System

2. Functions of the Nervous System

In this lesson, we'll watch Timmy as he plays in his backyard. Watch what happens when he tries to catch a butterfly, hears a mean dog bark, and scrapes his knee. All of Timmy's reactions are tied to his nervous system. For a full explanation of what goes on in the human nervous system, check out the video!

Homeostasis and Temperature Regulation in Humans

3. Homeostasis and Temperature Regulation in Humans

Do you wonder how your body is able to maintain a consistent temperature? Have you ever questioned why you get goosebumps when you're cold? This lesson will introduce you to homeostasis and answer your questions about body temperature regulation and reactions, like goosebumps.

Positive and Negative Feedback in the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

4. Positive and Negative Feedback in the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System

In this lesson, you'll study positive and negative feedback in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. You'll also learn why we have a fight or flight instinct and how it works.

The Structure and Function of Neurons

5. The Structure and Function of Neurons

In this video lesson, you'll learn about neurons, which are specialized cells in the nervous system. Check out how far neurons can send signals throughout the body and how depolarization is much like 'the wave' at a football game.

Types of Neurons: Sensory, Afferent, Motor, Efferent & More

6. Types of Neurons: Sensory, Afferent, Motor, Efferent & More

There are many types of neurons in your body that help you see, smell, hear, and move. In this lesson, you'll learn more about afferent, efferent, sensory, and motor neurons.

The Myelin Sheath, Schwann Cells & Nodes of Ranvier

7. The Myelin Sheath, Schwann Cells & Nodes of Ranvier

The myelin sheath is an essential part of our nervous system. Learn more about this neuron component, explore the nodes of Ranvier, and discover why Schwann cells are crucial for neuron survival.

Neuroglia: Function & Definition

8. Neuroglia: Function & Definition

In this lesson, you'll learn about the unsung heroes of your nervous system. These cells don't get a lot of attention, but without them, it would be difficult for your neurons to do their job and protect themselves against invaders.

Sensory Nerves: Types and Functions of Sensors and Receptors

9. Sensory Nerves: Types and Functions of Sensors and Receptors

In this lesson, we will explore what gives you the ability to sense temporary and sustained pressure, touch, and vibration. In addition, we'll touch base on certain nerves that allow you to sense the coolness of an ice cube in your mouth or the sensation of warmth on your skin.

Sensory Nerves and Receptors of Muscles and Tendons

10. Sensory Nerves and Receptors of Muscles and Tendons

Your body is able to sense its position in the environment. This is critical for movement, playing basketball, or even sitting still. Find out what this means as we explore proprioceptors, muscle spindles, and tendon organs.

What are the 31 Pairs of Spinal Nerves?

11. What are the 31 Pairs of Spinal Nerves?

In this lesson, we will briefly discuss the spinal cord and spinal nerves. We'll learn about what spinal nerves do and where they're located, and see how they connect to each other. Then you can test your knowledge with a short quiz.

Axon Hillock: Definition & Function

12. Axon Hillock: Definition & Function

All neurons can produce chemical impulses and have within them an axon hillock that decides if the impulse will be produced or not. Learn how this dynamic processing center uses incoming signals from other neurons to make its decision.

Lumbar Plexus: Nerves & Function

13. Lumbar Plexus: Nerves & Function

Did you know you have a bundle of nerves in your back called the lumbar plexus? In this lesson you will learn about this body part and its importance, and then you can test your knowledge with a quiz.

Sacral Plexus: Nerves, Function & Injury

14. Sacral Plexus: Nerves, Function & Injury

The sacral plexus is a region where several spinal nerves come together and then branch out to innervate most of your lower body. In this lesson, learn about the structure and function of the sacral plexus.

Somatic Cells: Definition, Examples & Types

15. Somatic Cells: Definition, Examples & Types

Somatic cells are all cells in the body except germ cells, which are egg and sperm. Learn more about examples of these cells and how they differ from germ cells. Quiz your understanding at the end.

What is GABA? - Function, Benefits & Side Effects

16. What is GABA? - Function, Benefits & Side Effects

GABA is a common neurotransmitter in the brain and is also used as a medicinal supplement to help reduce anxiety in some people. However, its effects are controversial. Does GABA actually reduce anxiety or not? Judge for yourself.

Acetylcholine: Definition, Function & Deficiency Symptoms

17. Acetylcholine: Definition, Function & Deficiency Symptoms

In this lesson, you will learn about acetylcholine, a chemical messenger that causes our skeletal muscles to contract and regulates our endocrine system. You'll find out how acetylcholine works and how a deficiency in this chemical can lead to serious medical conditions.

Catecholamines: Definition & Function

18. Catecholamines: Definition & Function

This lesson describes what a catecholamine is and what receptors it binds. It will also detail the function(s) of catecholamines within the human body.

Myelography: Definition & Procedure

19. Myelography: Definition & Procedure

Myelography is a special technique used to identify sources of back pain, using a contrasting fluid and regular X-rays. Read this lesson to learn how the procedure works and why it would be used.

Neuroimaging: Definition, Methods & Techniques

20. Neuroimaging: Definition, Methods & Techniques

Did the desire to know what CT, MRI or PET come across your mind during an episode of ''ER'' or ''House''? If so, this lesson will teach you the basics of neuroimaging, from definition to finer points of techniques and methodologies.

What Is Ataxia? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms

21. What Is Ataxia? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms

Ataxia is a disorder of movement, coordination, or balance that can be caused by hereditary deficiencies or a specific life event. In this lesson, you'll learn about what causes ataxia, as well as its common symptoms and treatment options.

What Is Neuropathic Pain? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

22. What Is Neuropathic Pain? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

This lesson will review how the brain and body communicate while experiencing neuropathic pain. We'll explain how this happens at a cellular level and how it manifests in the patient. Finally, this lesson will discuss the treatments for neuropathic pain.

What Is Neuropathy? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

23. What Is Neuropathy? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Neuropathy is a term that describes a broad range of nerve disorders. Read this lesson to learn about the different types of neuropathy, what causes it to happen, the resulting symptoms, and how neuropathy is treated.

What Is Paresthesia? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

24. What Is Paresthesia? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

Paresthesia is the tingling or itching sensation more commonly referred to as 'pins and needles.' Learn what causes this peculiar sensation, possible treatment options and if you should be concerned about your symptoms.

What is Phantom Limb Pain? - Characteristics, Causes & Treatment

25. What is Phantom Limb Pain? - Characteristics, Causes & Treatment

When you complete this lesson you will be able to define phantom limb pain, describe its characteristics and list treatment options. A short quiz follows this lesson.

Synaptogenesis: Definition & Overview

26. Synaptogenesis: Definition & Overview

Did you know that you have synaptogenesis going on right now? Luckily, that's a good thing! This lesson tells you all about what this term means and how it affects your brain throughout your lifetime.

Synaptic Cleft: Definition & Function

27. Synaptic Cleft: Definition & Function

Your brain is like a machine with many different parts that all work together. The synaptic cleft may not be the most well known part of the brain, but it is vital for brain function. Read on to find out more about what it does and why it matters.

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