About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering human anatomy and physiology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn human anatomy and physiology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding neurons or the nervous system at the cellular level
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about the nervous system at the cellular level
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Nervous System at the Cellular Level chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Nervous System at the Cellular Level chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any nervous system question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:
- What are the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?
- How are homeostasis and temperature regulated in humans?
- How do the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems respond to positive and negative feedback?
- What are the structures and functions of neurons?
- What are the different types of neurons?
- How does the myelin sheath facilitate cell signaling?
- How do neuroglia provide support and protection to neurons in the brain?
- What are the types and functions of sensory nerves?
- What are the functions of sensory nerves and receptors in muscles and tendons?
1. The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
In this lesson, you'll learn about two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system - the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Watch as a hiker, Phil, runs away from a terrifying bear and see how these systems react to the impending danger!
2. Functions of the Nervous System
In this lesson, we'll watch Timmy as he plays in his backyard. Watch what happens when he tries to catch a butterfly, hears a mean dog bark, and scrapes his knee. All of Timmy's reactions are tied to his nervous system. For a full explanation of what goes on in the human nervous system, check out the video!
3. Homeostasis and Temperature Regulation in Humans
Do you wonder how your body is able to maintain a consistent temperature? Have you ever questioned why you get goosebumps when you're cold? This lesson will introduce you to homeostasis and answer your questions about body temperature regulation and reactions, like goosebumps.
4. Positive and Negative Feedback in the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System
In this lesson, you'll study positive and negative feedback in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. You'll also learn why we have a fight or flight instinct and how it works.
5. The Structure and Function of Neurons
In this video lesson, you'll learn about neurons, which are specialized cells in the nervous system. Check out how far neurons can send signals throughout the body and how depolarization is much like 'the wave' at a football game.
6. Types of Neurons: Sensory, Afferent, Motor, Efferent & More
There are many types of neurons in your body that help you see, smell, hear, and move. In this lesson, you'll learn more about afferent, efferent, sensory, and motor neurons.
7. The Myelin Sheath, Schwann Cells & Nodes of Ranvier
The myelin sheath is an essential part of our nervous system. Learn more about this neuron component, explore the nodes of Ranvier, and discover why Schwann cells are crucial for neuron survival.
8. Neuroglia: Function & Definition
In this lesson, you'll learn about the unsung heroes of your nervous system. These cells don't get a lot of attention, but without them, it would be difficult for your neurons to do their job and protect themselves against invaders.
9. Sensory Nerves: Types and Functions of Sensors and Receptors
In this lesson, we will explore what gives you the ability to sense temporary and sustained pressure, touch, and vibration. In addition, we'll touch base on certain nerves that allow you to sense the coolness of an ice cube in your mouth or the sensation of warmth on your skin.
10. Sensory Nerves and Receptors of Muscles and Tendons
Your body is able to sense its position in the environment. This is critical for movement, playing basketball, or even sitting still. Find out what this means as we explore proprioceptors, muscle spindles, and tendon organs.
11. What are the 31 Pairs of Spinal Nerves?
In this lesson, we will briefly discuss the spinal cord and spinal nerves. We'll learn about what spinal nerves do and where they're located, and see how they connect to each other. Then you can test your knowledge with a short quiz.
12. Axon Hillock: Definition & Function
All neurons can produce chemical impulses and have within them an axon hillock that decides if the impulse will be produced or not. Learn how this dynamic processing center uses incoming signals from other neurons to make its decision.
13. Lumbar Plexus: Nerves & Function
Did you know you have a bundle of nerves in your back called the lumbar plexus? In this lesson you will learn about this body part and its importance, and then you can test your knowledge with a quiz.
14. Sacral Plexus: Nerves, Function & Injury
The sacral plexus is a region where several spinal nerves come together and then branch out to innervate most of your lower body. In this lesson, learn about the structure and function of the sacral plexus.
15. Somatic Cells: Definition, Examples & Types
Somatic cells are all cells in the body except germ cells, which are egg and sperm. Learn more about examples of these cells and how they differ from germ cells. Quiz your understanding at the end.
16. What is GABA? - Function, Benefits & Side Effects
GABA is a common neurotransmitter in the brain and is also used as a medicinal supplement to help reduce anxiety in some people. However, its effects are controversial. Does GABA actually reduce anxiety or not? Judge for yourself.
17. Acetylcholine: Definition, Function & Deficiency Symptoms
In this lesson, you will learn about acetylcholine, a chemical messenger that causes our skeletal muscles to contract and regulates our endocrine system. You'll find out how acetylcholine works and how a deficiency in this chemical can lead to serious medical conditions.
18. Catecholamines: Definition & Function
This lesson will describe what a catecholamine is and what receptors it binds. It will also detail the function(s) of catecholamines within the human body.
19. Myelography: Definition & Procedure
Myelography is a special technique used to identify sources of back pain, using a contrasting fluid and regular X-rays. Read this lesson to learn how the procedure works and why it would be used.
20. Neuroimaging: Definition, Methods & Techniques
Did the desire to know what CT, MRI or PET come across your mind during an episode of ''ER'' or ''House''? If so, this lesson will teach you the basics of neuroimaging, from definition to finer points of techniques and methodologies.
21. What Is Ataxia? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms
Ataxia is a disorder of movement, coordination, or balance that can be caused by hereditary deficiencies or a specific life event. Read this lesson to learn about what causes ataxia, as well as its common symptoms and treatment options.
22. What Is Neuropathic Pain? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
This lesson will review how the brain and body communicate while experiencing neuropathic pain. We'll explain how this happens at a cellular level and how it manifests in the patient. Finally, this lesson will discuss the treatments for neuropathic pain.
23. What Is Neuropathy? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
Neuropathy is a term that describes a broad range of nerve disorders. Read this lesson to learn about the different types of neuropathy, what causes it to happen, the resulting symptoms, and how neuropathy is treated.
24. What Is Paresthesia? - Definition, Causes & Treatment
Paresthesia is the tingling or itching sensation more commonly referred to as 'pins and needles.' Learn what causes this peculiar sensation, possible treatment options and if you should be concerned about your symptoms.
25. What is Phantom Limb Pain? - Characteristics, Causes & Treatment
When you complete this lesson you will be able to define phantom limb pain, describe its characteristics and list treatment options. A short quiz follows this lesson.
26. Synaptogenesis: Definition & Overview
Did you know that you have synaptogenesis going on right now? Luckily, that's a good thing! This lesson tells you all about what this term means and how it affects your brain throughout your lifetime.
27. Synaptic Cleft: Definition & Function
Your brain is like a machine with many different parts that all work together. The synaptic cleft may not be the most well known part of the brain, but it is vital for brain function. Read on to find out more about what it does and why it matters.
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Other chapters within the Human Anatomy & Physiology: Help and Review course
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- Organic Molecules in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Biochemistry in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Basic Anatomy and Cell Biology: Help and Review
- Respiratory System: Help and Review
- Cardiovascular System: Help and Review
- Blood Vessels: Help and Review
- Digestive System: Help and Review
- Urinary System: Help and Review
- Endocrine System: Help and Review
- The Brain: Help and Review
- The Five Senses: Help and Review
- Muscular System: Help and Review
- Gross Anatomy of Muscular System: Help and Review
- Connective Tissue: Help and Review
- Skeletal System: Help and Review
- Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
- Early Development to Childbirth: Help and Review