About This Chapter
The Parts of Cells - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Even though cells are so small, there's a lot of action that takes place inside of them. Find out more about the hard working parts of a cell in this series of video lessons led by a life science instructor. You'll get an understanding of how the parts of a cell work, both individually and together as a whole cell. You'll also learn about how those functions can be infected and overtaken by viruses. At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
- Identify the parts of a cell
- Describe the functions of cell parts
- Explain how molecules move into, out of, and within cells
- Describe two kinds of cells
- Explain how viruses use cell structures to replicate themselves
|Organelles: Internal Components of a Cell||Identify the common structures inside of a cell that perform specific functions.|
|Passive and Active Transport in Cells||Describe the different ways in which nutrients, oxygen, and related materials are moved into, out of, and around cells.|
|Osmosis: Moving Water Across Membranes||Describe the process of osmosis.|
|Endocytosis and Exocytosis Across the Cell Membrane||Describe two processes of moving materials through cell membranes.|
|The Nucleus: Structure and Function||Identify the parts of a cell's nucleus and what they do.|
|Mitochondria: Structure and Function||Identify the parts of a cell's mitochondria and what they do.|
|Chloroplast Structure: Chlorophyll, Stroma, Thylakoid, and Grana||Describe these specific parts of a chloroplast.|
|Cell Nutrient Processes: Cellular Respiration, and Photosynthesis||Explain these processes.|
|Plant Cell Structures: The Cell Wall and Central Vacuole||Identify and describe these structures.|
|Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells: Similarities and Differences||Compare and contrast these two types of cells.|
|Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles||Explain these two processes by which viruses reproduce inside affected cells.|
1. Organelles: Internal Components of a Cell
The organelles of a cell are much like the organs of your body. In fact, the word organelle means little organ. Learn about important organelles of a human cell, such as the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes and Golgi bodies.
2. Passive & Active Transport in Cells
In order for your cells to survive, nutrients and other substances must be allowed to move in and out across the cell membrane. Sometimes this requires energy (active transport), and sometimes it does not (passive transport).
3. Osmosis, Diffusion and Saturation
The cells in our bodies are in constant flux through the processes of osmosis and diffusion. Learn about how saturation levels force change, and why we're lucky they do.
4. Endocytosis and Exocytosis Across the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we'll discover how some cells can eat, drink, and digest their dinner through the process of endocytosis and a structure called the lysosome. In addition, we'll learn how a cell can throw out the leftovers across the cell membrane during exocytosis.
5. Structure of the Nucleus: Nucleolus, Nuclear Membrane, and Nuclear Pores
In this lesson, we'll discuss the organization and importance of the nucleus in your cells. This is the membrane-bound structure responsible for containing all the genetic material essential to making you who you are.
6. Mitochondria: Structure & Function
Energy is produced inside the mitochondria of your cells. This function is why mitochondria are referred to as the powerhouses of the cell. Learn about the unique way mitochondria are structured and why this structure makes them so good at their job.
7. Chloroplast Structure: Chlorophyll, Stroma, Thylakoid, and Grana
In this lesson, we'll explore the parts of the chloroplast, such as the thylakoids and stroma, that make a chloroplast the perfect place for conducting photosynthesis in plant cells.
8. Plant Cell Structures: The Cell Wall and Central Vacuole
In this lesson, we'll talk about some of the things that make plant cells so different from our cells. In addition to being mean, green photosynthesizing machines, plant cells have cell walls and central vacuoles to make them unique!
9. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells: Similarities and Differences
In this lesson, we discuss the similarities and differences between the eukaryotic cells of your body and prokaryotic cells such as bacteria. Eukaryotes organize different functions within specialized membrane-bound compartments called organelles. These structures do not exist in prokaryotes.
10. Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
Viruses are generally not only our enemy but also the enemy of many other organisms. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect specific bacteria. In this lesson, we'll discuss their basic structure and infection cycle.
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Other chapters within the Life Science: Middle School course
- Introduction to Life Science
- Characteristics & Chemicals of Life
- DNA Replication & Mutation
- Cell Division & the Cell Cycle
- How Living Organisms Get Energy
- Classification of Organisms
- The Origin & History of Life On Earth
- Genetics & Hereditary Traits
- Genetic Engineering Basics
- Natural Selection & Evolution in Life Science
- Microbiology & Types of Microbes
- Introduction to Ecosystems
- Types of Ecosystems
- Changing Ecosystems
- Birds & Mammals
- Animal Behavior & Communication
- Mammal Reproduction & Development
- The Respiratory System
- The Cardiovascular System
- The Blood Vessels
- The Digestive System
- The Urinary & Endocrine Systems
- The Brain & Nervous System
- The Muscular System
- The Skeletal System & Connective Tissue
- Sight, Hearing & Other Senses
- Health Issues & Concerns
- Plant Biology & Structure
- How Plants Grow & Reproduce
- Environmental Concerns
- Natural Resources
- Earth History & Geologic Time