About This Chapter
The Periodic Table of Elements - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
This chapter is designed to demystify the organizational structure of the periodic table, including how the chemical elements are arranged according to their atomic numbers and distribution of electrons. You'll also learn about periodic trends, or how elemental properties, such as atomic radius or electron affinity, increase or decrease as you move across or up and down the table. The diagonal arrangements of metallic and nonmetallic elements will also be discussed.
Additional topics include ionization energy, or how much force is needed to remove electrons from gaseous atoms. You'll also find out how atoms attract electrons through the property of electronegativity. When you've finished with the chapter, you should be able to:
- Understand the layout of the periodic table, including its columns (groups) and rows (periods)
- Discuss how electron shells and valence electrons determine atomic properties and energy levels
- Identify the main elements, noble gases and transition metals on the periodic table
- Understand the difference between atomic and ionic radii and their relationship to the periodic table
|The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods||Describe how the periodic table is arranged into groups and periods and how it can be used to identify the major physical properties of elements.|
|The Electron Shell||Understand what is meant by the following terms and their relationship to the periodic table: electron shell, energy level, valence electron, valence level and noble gases.|
|Valence Electrons and Energy Levels of Atoms of Elements||Discuss the relationship between an element's location on the periodic table and the number of valence electrons and energy levels found in its atoms.|
|Atomic and Ionic Radii: Trends among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table||Define atomic and ionic radii and how they vary across the table.|
|Ionization Energy: Trends among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table||Define ionization energy and how it varies across the table.|
|Electronegativity: Trends among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table||Define the chemical property of electronegativity and how it varies across the table.|
|The Diagonal Relationship, Metallic Character and Boiling Point||Describe the diagonal relationship on the periodic table, and discuss boiling point trends and metallic properties.|
|Transition Metals vs. Main Group Elements: Properties and Differences||Compare and contrast the main group elements with transition metals.|
1. The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods
How is the periodic table like the map you used on your last road trip? In this lesson, you will be introduced to the periodic table, the road map of chemists. We will discuss how the elements are organized and how you can use this organization to identify some of their major physical properties.
2. The Electron Shell
You may be familiar with the role of electrons in electrical devices, but did you know that electrons also determine the chemical reactivity of everything around you?
3. Valence Electrons and Energy Levels of Atoms of Elements
The periodic table contains a wealth of information. This lesson will explain how to use it to quickly determine the most useful information about the most important electrons. We will be focusing our discussion on valence electrons and energy levels.
4. Atomic and Ionic Radii: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
Atoms are VERY tiny. How do we measure their size? This lesson will explain how the size of an atom is measured and teach you how to predict the relative size of an atom based on where it is located on the periodic table.
5. Ionization Energy: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
Do you know someone who has undergone radiation as a form of cancer treatment? Have you ever thought about why X-rays have health risks? Watch the video to find out what these types of radiation are really doing to atoms, define ionization energy and identify ionization trends on the periodic table.
6. Electronegativity: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
How is fluorine like a child that doesn't share his or her toys? Find out in this video on electronegativity where we will discuss group and periodic trends among the elements.
7. The Diagonal Relationship, Metallic Character, and Boiling Point
What may have once seemed like a bunch of random squares with letters in them is now shaping up to be one very organized chemistry reference. In this lesson you will discover three other trends that are found on the periodic table: the diagonal relationship, trends in metallic character, and trends in boiling point.
8. Transition Metals vs. Main Group Elements: Properties and Differences
Which is better: to be steadfast and consistent or to be a colorful chameleon? This lesson compares and contrasts the main group elements and the transition metals. Then make your own decision!
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Other chapters within the Chemistry: High School course
- Introduction to Chemistry
- Measurement and Problem Solving
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- What Is Matter?
- Understanding Atomic Structure
- The Representative Elements of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Bonding for High School Chemistry
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- Gases in Chemistry
- Solutions in Chemistry
- Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- Acids, Bases and Reactions
- Chemistry Kinetics
- Thermodynamics in Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry Basics
- Teaching Resources for High School Chemistry