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Ch 6: The Periodic Table of Elements

About This Chapter

Watch videos lessons and learn how to use the Periodic Table of Elements. These easy-to-follow lessons are just a portion of our online study guide and video collection.

The Periodic Table of Elements - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

This chapter is designed to demystify the organizational structure of the periodic table, including how the chemical elements are arranged according to their atomic numbers and distribution of electrons. You'll also learn about periodic trends, or how elemental properties, such as atomic radius or electron affinity, increase or decrease as you move across or up and down the table. The diagonal arrangements of metallic and nonmetallic elements will also be discussed.

Additional topics include ionization energy, or how much force is needed to remove electrons from gaseous atoms. You'll also find out how atoms attract electrons through the property of electronegativity. When you've finished with the chapter, you should be able to:

  • Understand the layout of the periodic table, including its columns (groups) and rows (periods)
  • Discuss how electron shells and valence electrons determine atomic properties and energy levels
  • Identify the main elements, noble gases and transition metals on the periodic table
  • Understand the difference between atomic and ionic radii and their relationship to the periodic table

VideoObjective
The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and PeriodsDescribe how the periodic table is arranged into groups and periods and how it can be used to identify the major physical properties of elements.
The Electron ShellUnderstand what is meant by the following terms and their relationship to the periodic table: electron shell, energy level, valence electron, valence level and noble gases.
Valence Electrons and Energy Levels of Atoms of ElementsDiscuss the relationship between an element's location on the periodic table and the number of valence electrons and energy levels found in its atoms.
Atomic and Ionic Radii: Trends among Groups and Periods of the Periodic TableDefine atomic and ionic radii and how they vary across the table.
Ionization Energy: Trends among Groups and Periods of the Periodic TableDefine ionization energy and how it varies across the table.
Electronegativity: Trends among Groups and Periods of the Periodic TableDefine the chemical property of electronegativity and how it varies across the table.
The Diagonal Relationship, Metallic Character and Boiling PointDescribe the diagonal relationship on the periodic table, and discuss boiling point trends and metallic properties.
Transition Metals vs. Main Group Elements: Properties and DifferencesCompare and contrast the main group elements with transition metals.

8 Lessons in Chapter 6: The Periodic Table of Elements
The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods

1. The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods

How is the periodic table like the map you used on your last road trip? In this lesson, you will be introduced to the periodic table, the road map of chemists. We will discuss how the elements are organized and how you can use this organization to identify some of their major physical properties.

The Electron Shell

2. The Electron Shell

You may be familiar with the role of electrons in electrical devices, but did you know that electrons also determine the chemical reactivity of everything around you?

Valence Electrons and Energy Levels of Atoms of Elements

3. Valence Electrons and Energy Levels of Atoms of Elements

The periodic table contains a wealth of information. This lesson will explain how to use it to quickly determine the most useful information about the most important electrons. We will be focusing our discussion on valence electrons and energy levels.

Atomic and Ionic Radii: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table

4. Atomic and Ionic Radii: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table

Atoms are VERY tiny. How do we measure their size? This lesson will explain how the size of an atom is measured and teach you how to predict the relative size of an atom based on where it is located on the periodic table.

Ionization Energy: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table

5. Ionization Energy: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table

Do you know someone who has undergone radiation as a form of cancer treatment? Have you ever thought about why X-rays have health risks? Watch the video to find out what these types of radiation are really doing to atoms, define ionization energy and identify ionization trends on the periodic table.

Electronegativity: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table

6. Electronegativity: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table

How is fluorine like a child that doesn't share his or her toys? Find out in this video on electronegativity where we will discuss group and periodic trends among the elements.

The Diagonal Relationship, Metallic Character, and Boiling Point

7. The Diagonal Relationship, Metallic Character, and Boiling Point

What may have once seemed like a bunch of random squares with letters in them is now shaping up to be one very organized chemistry reference. In this lesson you will discover three other trends that are found on the periodic table: the diagonal relationship, trends in metallic character, and trends in boiling point.

Transition Metals vs. Main Group Elements: Properties and Differences

8. Transition Metals vs. Main Group Elements: Properties and Differences

Which is better: to be steadfast and consistent or to be a colorful chameleon? This lesson compares and contrasts the main group elements and the transition metals. Then make your own decision!

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