About This Chapter
The Reformation - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The Reformation was a time of religious change and upheaval. In these lessons, discover how the Catholic and Protestant churches managed to coexist. Study important figures of this period, such as Martin Luther, Henry VIII, Albrecht Durer and Ivan the Terrible. Explore how life was before and after the Reformation, and dig into how religious beliefs transformed during this era. Once you've finished this chapter, you'll be able to do the following:
- Describe Catholic practices and beliefs before the Reformation.
- Explain the effect of the Protestant Reformation on artwork.
- Trace the spread of the Protestant Reformation across Europe.
- Explain how the German Peasants' War incorporated principles from the Protestant Reformation.
- Differentiate among feudal hosts, mercenaries and standing armies.
|The Rise of the Vernacular and the Decline of Latin||Explore how the church made concessions to commoners.|
|The Catholic Church Before the Reformation: Beliefs and Practices||Get an overview of the beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church prior to the Reformation.|
|Martin Luther, the 95 Theses and the Protestant Reformation||Learn about Martin Luther's 95 Theses and the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.|
|Art in the Protestant Reformation: Albrecht Durer & Northern European Artists||Explore how aspects of the Protestant Reformation spilled into art.|
|The Reformation's Impact on Germany: The Peasant Wars||Learn about the Peasants' War and Peace of Augsburg.|
|The Spread of the Protestant Reformation Across Europe||Explore how different countries dealt with the Reformation.|
|Religious Reform in Switzerland: Calvin and Zwingli's Teachings in the Reformation||Discuss the impact of Calvin and Zwingli's religious teachings on the Swiss states.|
|The French Wars of Religion: Catholics vs. the Huguenots||Examine the French Wars of Religion between the Catholics and the Huguenots (Protestants).|
|Henry VIII and the Anglican Church||Explore the importance of an heir, annulments and a new church.|
|Mercenaries and the Sack of Rome||Discuss the Sack of Rome and compare feudal hosts, mercenaries and standing armies.|
|Ivan the Terrible and the Making of Russia||Get a quick history of Russia, including Ivan the Terrible's role in it.|
|The Council of Trent: The Catholic Church Survives the Reformation||Learn about the Council of Trent and how the Catholic Church survived the Reformation.|
|Life After the Reformation & Protestant Influence on Society||Get an overview of societal changes that occurred as a result of the Reformation, especially in regards to the Protestant influence on family, education and the economy.|
|The Reformers & the Catholic Church: How Religions Beliefs Transformed During the Reformation||Get a summary of the major principles underlying the different faiths by illustrating how religious beliefs transformed during this era.|
1. The Rise of the Vernacular and the Decline of Latin
This lesson explains how Latin was widespread in Europe during the Roman Empire as well as how vernacular languages slowly replaced it. It also reviews how the Romance languages developed.
2. The Catholic Church Before the Reformation: Beliefs and Practices
In 1500 C.E. the Roman Catholic Church was a very powerful institution in the West. Watch this video to learn how the Church maintained its power by teaching that salvation could only be earned by those who received the sacraments and performed good works.
3. Martin Luther, the 95 Theses and the Birth of the Protestant Reformation
This lesson covers the start of the Protestant Reformation. It begins by comparing the vast array and peacefulness of Christian denominations in modern days to the limited choices and violence of the past. Then it goes into the story of Martin Luther, from his 95 Theses through the Diet of Worms up to the beginning of the German Peasant Revolt.
4. Art in the Protestant Reformation: Albrecht Durer & Northern European Artists
The Protestant Reformation introduced some pretty substantial changes into European society. In this lesson, we'll be talking about some of the impacts it had on the art of Northern Europe.
5. The Spread of the Protestant Reformation Across Europe
In the 16th century, Martin Luther inspired people to believe that the Catholic Church shouldn't hold authority over laypeople. This lesson explores the spread of these Protestant ideas throughout Europe.
6. The Reformation's Impact on Germany: The Peasant Wars
The Reformation was a time when Christianity was split into Catholicism and Protestantism. This lesson explores the major changes brought about by the Reformation in Germany in the 16th century.
7. Religious Reform in Switzerland: Calvin & Zwingli's Teachings in the Reformation
The Protestant Reformation resulted in many people splitting from the Catholic Church. This lesson explores the effect of the Reformation in Switzerland under the leadership of Zwingli and Calvin.
8. The French Wars of Religion: Catholics vs. the Huguenots
The Protestant Reformation was so popular and controversial in Europe that it sometimes led to war. This lesson explores the violent effect of the Reformation in France as war erupted between the Catholics and the Protestants.
9. Henry VIII: The Anglican Church
This lesson covers the various steps Henry VIII took in breaking away from the Roman Catholic Church. You'll learn how Henry managed to get what he wanted by going through legal means and playing off of others who also had problems with the Church.
10. Mercenaries and the Sack of Rome
Politics led Charles de Bourbon, a rich French Duke, to flee his country to fight for his cousin, the Holy Roman Emperor. This lesson explains how financing and the use of mercenaries by Bourbon led to the sack of Rome in 1527.
11. Ivan the Terrible and the Making of Russia
Ivan the Terrible was a great but violent leader. Despite his intelligence, he was prone to violent outbursts. This lesson explores his life and the effects of his reign on Russia.
12. The Council of Trent: The Catholic Church Survives the Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a movement of Christians who disagreed with some of the teachings and actions of the Catholic Church. This article explores the effect of the Reformation on the Church.
13. Life After the Reformation & Protestant Influence on Society
The Protestant Reformation was a huge movement that led to many Christians splitting from the Catholic Church. This lesson explores the after effects on families, education and social life.
14. The Reformers & the Catholic Church: How Religious Beliefs Transformed During the Reformation
The Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation challenged the beliefs of the Catholic Church. This lesson explores some of the differing beliefs among Protestant and Catholic reformers.
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Other chapters within the History 101: Western Civilization I course
- History of Ancient Greece
- Hellenism and the Athenian Achievement
- The Rise of the Roman Republic
- The Fall of the Roman Empire
- The Dark Ages
- The Early Middle Ages
- The Medieval Warm Period
- The High Middle Ages
- The Late Middle Ages
- The Renaissance
- The Age of Exploration
- The Elizabethan Era
- Studying for History 101