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Ch 17: Thermodynamics in Chemistry

About This Chapter

Watch thermodynamics video lessons and learn about the connection between heat and other types of energy. Take quizzes to make sure you understand the key thermodynamics concepts introduced here.

Thermodynamics in Chemistry - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

A branch of physical science, thermodynamics involves the study of heat in relationship to chemical, electrical, mechanical or other forms of energy. In this chapter, you'll learn about the two basic laws of thermodynamics, including how energy can't be created or destroyed. You'll also find out how to perform energy-related calculations and measurements. When you've finished the chapter, you should also be familiar with these additional key topics:

  • State functions of molecules or compounds
  • Thermodynamic quantities, including enthalpy and free energy
  • Bond energy and chemical bond strength measurements
  • Hess's Law of Constant Heat and how it pertains to enthalpy and state functions
  • Calorimetry and how heat capacity and transfers are measured
  • Electrochemistry and the relationship between chemistry and electrical occurrences

VideoObjective
The Laws of ThermodynamicsUnderstand chemical reactions; define the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
State Functions in ThermochemistryDefine and explain the importance of state function with examples.
Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical ProcessesIdentify how energy is transferred in a physical or chemical process; use thermochemical equations to calculate the amount of heat energy transferred in a reaction.
Bond Energy: Breaking the BondDefine and discuss bond energy.
Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a ReactionCompute changes in thermodynamic quantities during a chemical reaction.
Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat CapacityUse temperature calculations and heat capacities to compute the amount of heat transferred.
Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical ChangesDefine entropy and predict the deltaS sign for physical and chemical changes.
Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a ReactionForecast the unexpected occurrence of a chemical reaction.
Standard Enthalpy FormationIdentify formation reactions and enthalpic changes; compute the enthalpic change of a reaction.
The Relationship between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S) Calculate the deltaG, deltaS or deltaH at a given temperature using the other two values.
Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential EnergyExplain the relationship between E cell and deltaG cell equilibrium constants.
Endothermic and Exothermic ReactionsDefine the terms and how they affect reactions.
Catalysts and Energy DynamicsUse a diagram to illustrate and explain the difference between a catalyst and an uncatalyzed reaction.

13 Lessons in Chapter 17: Thermodynamics in Chemistry
The Laws of Thermodynamics

1. The Laws of Thermodynamics

Learn about the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Find out how energy is generated, how it converts from one form to another, and what happens to energy in a closed system.

State Functions in Thermochemistry

2. State Functions in Thermochemistry

This lesson defines state functions and explains why state functions are so useful in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. You'll also see a few examples of common state functions.

Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes

3. Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes

This video explores the relationship between chemistry and energy. We learn the general properties of energy and the concepts of temperature and heat. We will learn about energy flow and consider the enthalpy change during chemical reactions.

Bond Energy: Definition & Equation

4. Bond Energy: Definition & Equation

Chemical reactions involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. In this video lesson, we will learn about bond energy and how we can use it to measure the overall energy change of a chemical reaction.

Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction

5. Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction

Want to make sure you don't blow yourself up during a chemical reaction? This lesson will help you avoid this by teaching you Hess's Law. This is one way to calculate the heat transferred, or enthalpy change, of a chemical reaction.

Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity

6. Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity

This video lesson explains the technique of calorimetry used to measure heat transfer in chemical reactions. You will see how different materials have different specific heat capacities. You will learn how to carry out heat calculations using a simple equation.

Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes

7. Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes

Ever wonder why your bedroom always ends up a mess within hours of you tidying up? That is the magic of entropy. In this lesson, you'll learn why disorder is the natural state of matter and how we can predict entropy change in a physical or chemical reaction.

Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction

8. Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction

Ever heard the phrase 'pushing Jell-O uphill on a hot day'? This describes a hopeless task. In this lesson, we will predict hopeful and hopeless reactions. Or put scientifically, predicting spontaneous (hopeful) and non-spontaneous (hopeless) reactions.

Standard Enthalpy of Formation: Explanation & Calculations

9. Standard Enthalpy of Formation: Explanation & Calculations

In this video lesson, we learn about the standard enthalpies of formation of substances. We will also learn how we can use these values as one way to calculate the standard enthalpy change of a chemical reaction.

The Relationship Between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S)

10. The Relationship Between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S)

In this video lesson, we'll study free energy (G) and its relationship to enthalpy, entropy and temperature. You'll also learn why free energy (G) is the single most useful criterion for predicting the spontaneity and direction of a chemical reaction.

Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy

11. Electrochemistry: Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy

Our modern lives are totally dependent on electricity. In this lesson, we learn about electricity spontaneously produced by electrochemical cells or batteries. We make the link between the potential energy they produce and Gibbs free energy.

Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions

12. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions

Explore a chemical reaction at the molecular level. Learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions, what they look like and what happens when they occur. Understand enthalpy and how you can use it to predict whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic.

Effect of Catalysts on Rates of Reaction

13. Effect of Catalysts on Rates of Reaction

In this video lesson, we will learn how catalysts speed up chemical reactions. We'll also discuss how catalysts are used in industry and consider the catalysts in our own bodies. A short quiz will test your new knowledge.

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