About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering high school biology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding cellular proteins and the transcription and translation process
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about transcription and translation
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the transcription and translation chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the transcription and translation chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any transcription and translation question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a transcription and translation unit of a standard high school biology course. Topics covered include:
- The central dogma of molecular biology
- Codon recognition
- Gene expression
- Genetic code
- Protein synthesis
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?
How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.
7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code
How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.
9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the High School Biology: Help and Review course
- Core Science Concepts: Help and Review
- Basic Science Lab Skills: Help and Review
- Inorganic Chemistry Review for High School Biology: Help and Review
- Basic Organic Chemistry: Help and Review
- How Enzymes Work: Help and Review
- Essentials of Cell Biology: Help and Review
- Requirements of Biological Systems: Help and Review
- Cell Communication: Help and Review
- Cell Metabolism: Help and Review
- Cell Division in Biology: Help and Review
- Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA - in Biology: Help and Review
- The Steps of DNA Replication: Help and Review
- Genetics and Heredity in Biology: Help and Review
- Genetic Mutations in Biology: Help and Review
- DNA Technology and Genomics: Help and Review
- Bacterial Biology Essentials: Help and Review
- Viruses in Biology: Help and Review
- The Origin of the Universe and Life on Earth: Help and Review
- Geologic Time, Dating & Fossils: Help and Review
- Evolution Basics: Help and Review
- The Evolution & Classification of Organisms: Help and Review
- Basics of Plant Biology: Help and Review
- Plant Reproduction & Growth Cycles: Help and Review
- Introduction to Fungi: Help and Review
- Introduction to Invertebrates: Help and Review
- Introduction to Vertebrates: Help and Review
- Circulatory System & Other Systems: Help & Review
- The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems: Help and Review
- Animal Reproduction & Embryonic Development: Help and Review
- Human Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
- Ecology and the Environment: Help and Review
- Human Effects on the Environment: Help and Review
- Animal Behavior: Help and Review
- Laboratory Techniques for Molecular Biology & Genetic Engineering: Help and Review
- Analyzing Scientific Data in Biology: Help and Review