About This Chapter
Understanding Atomic Structure - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Watch as instructors in this chapter's video lessons break down the building blocks of matter into their subatomic particles. Learn how the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons can be used to determine an atom's mass and describe its energy levels. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- Key figures in the development of early atomic theory
- Characteristics of an atom's nucleus
- Rules determining an atom's electron configuration
- Conversion factors for calculating the mass and quantity of atoms
- Principles used to explain particle momentum
|The Atom||Identifies an atom's protons, neutrons, and electrons and explains how they determine an atom's electric charge.|
|Atomic Number and Mass Number||Shows how to determine the atomic number and mass number of an atom and use its nuclear symbol to calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.|
|Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Millikan||Describes the findings of each of these scientists and their contributions to atomic theory.|
|Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass||Explains what an isotope is and how isotope abundance relates to the atomic mass of an element.|
|Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms||Discusses Avogadro's number and explains why we use it to count atoms. The calculations used to determine the quantity and mass of atoms are also discussed.|
|Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels||Demonstrates the total number of electrons needed to fully occupy each main energy level and shows how to write an electron configuration for an atom of any element.|
|Atomic Structures: Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle & Hund's Rule||Explains the Aufbau and Pauli exclusion principles and their rules. Hund's Rule is also discussed.|
|Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism||Discusses the electron configurations causing diamagnetic and paramagnetic atoms.|
|Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin||Demonstrates steps for writing the principal, angular, magnetic, and spin quantum numbers for any electron in an atom.|
|The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra||Explains the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom and describes how it relates to atomic spectra.|
|The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: Definition & Significance||Outlines factors of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.|
|The de Brogile Hypothesis: Definition & Significance||Discusses factors of the de Broglie Hypothesis.|
1. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
2. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
3. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.
4. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass
When you drink a glass of water, you are actually drinking a combination of heavy water and light water. What's the difference? Is it harmful? This video will explain the difference between the two types of water and go into detail on the significance of the different isotopes of elements.
5. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms
How do we move from the atomic world to the regular world? Because atoms are so tiny, how can we count and measure them? And what do chemists celebrate at 6:02 AM on October 23rd each year? In this lesson, you will be learning how Avogadro's number and the mole can answer these questions.
6. Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels
This lesson will explain what the electrons are doing inside the atom. Tune in to find out how we specify where they are located and how this location description will help us predict an element's properties.
7. Atomic Structures: Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle & Hund's Rule
This lesson discusses the three main rules that govern how electrons fit in the atomic structure by filling the shells, subshells, and orbitals. We will also review the basics of quantum numbers before learning these principles.
8. Diamagnetism & Paramagnetism: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson, we learn more about electron configuration through the concepts of diamagnetism and paramagnetism. We will review electron structure in an atom, and define diamagnetism and paramagnetism.
9. Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin
Each atom inside of an electron has its own 'address' that consists of four quantum numbers that communicate a great deal of information about that electron. In this lesson we will be defining each quantum number and explaining how to write a set of quantum numbers for a specific electron.
10. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra
Do you ever wonder where light comes from or how it is produced? In this lesson, we are going to use our knowledge of the electron configurations and quantum numbers to see what goes on during the creation of light.
11. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: Definition & Equation
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is one of the core concepts in quantum mechanics. In this lesson, we define the uncertainty principle and learn more about its implications for physical science.
12. The de Broglie Hypothesis: Definition & Significance
The de Broglie hypothesis states that particles of matter can behave as both waves and particles, just like light. In this lesson, we'll learn the basics of the de Broglie hypothesis and how it related to other theories released at the same time.
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Other chapters within the Chemistry: High School course
- Introduction to Chemistry
- Measurement and Problem Solving
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- What Is Matter?
- The Periodic Table of Elements
- The Representative Elements of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Bonding for High School Chemistry
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- Gases in Chemistry
- Solutions in Chemistry
- Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- Acids, Bases and Reactions
- Chemistry Kinetics
- Thermodynamics in Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry Basics
- Teaching Resources for High School Chemistry