About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering high school biology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the life cycle of a virus and viruses in biology
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about viruses
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the virus chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the virus chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any virus question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a virus unit of a standard high school biology course. Topics covered include:
- Categories of viruses
- DNA and RNA replication of viruses
- Flu viruses
- Shapes of viruses
- Virus mutations
1. What Are Viruses? - Definition, Structure & Function
In this lesson, you'll learn some historical facts about viruses and the material they are composed of. Find out more as we review the capsid, nucleic acids, the viral envelope, viruses, virions, bacteriophages and virology.
2. Shapes of a Virus: Helical, Icosahedral, Prolate, Complex & Enveloped
Learn about the different shapes viruses can have, such as helical, icosahedral, prolate, complex and enveloped. Find out why one shape is particularly useful from an energetic standpoint.
3. The Life Cycle of a Virus: How Viruses Live, Attack & Replicate
Find out how viruses infect and replicate as we explore the important steps of the virus life cycle, including attachment, uncoating, penetration, replication, and release, as well as the lysogenic and lytic cycles.
4. Classification of Viruses: Viral Genome and Replication Scheme
Find out how viruses are classified based on their being double-stranded, single-stranded, positive-sense, negative-sense, or by having something called reverse transcriptase.
5. Replication of DNA Viruses
This lesson will give you a basic overview of how DNA viruses replicate inside of a host cell. We will cover the entry, integration, replication and release of DNA viruses.
6. Replication of RNA Viruses
This lesson will give you a basic overview of how different types of RNA viruses replicate inside of an animal cell. We will cover the essence of being double-stranded and retroviruses, as well as positive-and negative-sense RNA viruses.
7. How Viruses Mutate: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift
This lesson will discuss the major ways by which viruses, notably the flu virus, mutates. We will talk about recombination, reassortment, antigenic drift, antigenic shift, and more!
8. Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
Viruses are generally not only our enemy but also the enemy of many other organisms. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect specific bacteria. In this lesson, we'll discuss their basic structure and infection cycle.
9. Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion
Why is it that our immune systems can protect us from some viruses but not others? We've eradicated smallpox by using vaccines, so why do influenza and HIV remain such dangerous health risks? In this lesson about viruses, we'll explore these questions and learn how influenza and HIV continue to evade the human immune system.
10. Chicken Pox Virus Structure and Function
Chickenpox is caused by the varicella zoster virus. It is highly contagious, but incidents have been reduced greatly with the development of a vaccine. Learn more about this virus and quiz yourself.
11. Epstein Barr Virus: Structure and Function
The Epstein Barr virus affects more individuals per year than you may know. If you catch it, it will make you very sick. We'll explore here what Epstein Barr is, what it does, and what it looks like.
12. Hepatitis C Virus: Structure and Function
Hepatitis C virus causes both short-term illness and chronic liver disease leading to cirrhosis and cancer. Learn about the virus and how it replicates.
13. Rabies Virus: Structure and Function
Rabies is a neurological disease spread by the saliva of infected animals. While it can be prevented by vaccination, it is deadly once symptoms appear. Learn more about this disease and the virus that causes it.
14. Rubella Virus: Structure and Function
The vaccines that children are given are meant to prevent their getting sick. One of the vaccines they get is the MMR shot, meant to prevent measles, mumps, and rubella. You may have heard of measles and mumps, but what is rubella? We discuss this further.
15. Smallpox Virus: Structure and Function
Smallpox is caused by a large virus that can go through several different stages to infect cells. This lesson will discuss the different forms of the virus and how they continue the smallpox infection from cell to cell.
16. Tobacco Mosaic Virus: Structure and Function
Tobacco mosaic virus is not why cigarettes are unhealthy for humans; rather, it is an interesting virus to study. This lesson will give the real facts on its structure and function.
17. Variola Virus: Structure and Function
This lesson will discuss variola virus, the virus that causes smallpox. You will learn the functions of different parts of the virus structure, and how these parts work together to cause disease.
18. West Nile Virus: Structure and Function
The West Nile virus is an illness transmitted by mosquitoes. Individuals infected with this virus may be completely asymptomatic, or end up with extreme complications.
19. Yellow Fever Virus: Structure and Function
In this lesson, we'll discuss the parts of the yellow fever virus' structure and what functions those parts perform during infection and replication. We'll also learn about symptoms and treatment of the disease, called yellow fever, that the yellow fever virus causes.
20. Hepatitis A Virus: Structure and Function
This lesson will describe the structure and function of the virus that causes hepatitis A. After the lesson, there will be a few questions to test what you have learned.
21. Hepatitis B Virus: Structure and Function
Hepatitis B is part of a family of similar viruses that affect the liver. It can be deadly, but is often treatable, and for the past 30 years we've had a vaccine for it. This lesson will further explore the structure and function of the hepatitis B virus.
22. Herpes Simplex Virus: Structure and Function
Herpes is a virus that affects humans. It is one of the most common viruses to infect humans as it comes in a variety of different types. We look at the specific types of herpes simplex virus here.
23. Molluscum Contagiosum Virus: Symptoms & Treatment
Many diseases are found in human beings, and some are worse than others. A harmless virus, molluscum contagiosum, is easily passed around and most often found in children. Read on to learn more about symptoms and treatment.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the High School Biology: Help and Review course
- Core Science Concepts: Help and Review
- Basic Science Lab Skills: Help and Review
- Inorganic Chemistry Review for High School Biology: Help and Review
- Basic Organic Chemistry: Help and Review
- How Enzymes Work: Help and Review
- Essentials of Cell Biology: Help and Review
- Requirements of Biological Systems: Help and Review
- Cell Communication: Help and Review
- Cell Metabolism: Help and Review
- Cell Division in Biology: Help and Review
- Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA - in Biology: Help and Review
- The Steps of DNA Replication: Help and Review
- Transcription and Translation of Nucleic Acids: Help and Review
- Genetics and Heredity in Biology: Help and Review
- Genetic Mutations in Biology: Help and Review
- DNA Technology and Genomics: Help and Review
- Bacterial Biology Essentials: Help and Review
- The Origin of the Universe and Life on Earth: Help and Review
- Geologic Time, Dating & Fossils: Help and Review
- Evolution Basics: Help and Review
- The Evolution & Classification of Organisms: Help and Review
- Basics of Plant Biology: Help and Review
- Plant Reproduction & Growth Cycles: Help and Review
- Introduction to Fungi: Help and Review
- Introduction to Invertebrates: Help and Review
- Introduction to Vertebrates: Help and Review
- Circulatory System & Other Systems: Help & Review
- The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems: Help and Review
- Animal Reproduction & Embryonic Development: Help and Review
- Human Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
- Ecology and the Environment: Help and Review
- Human Effects on the Environment: Help and Review
- Animal Behavior: Help and Review
- Laboratory Techniques for Molecular Biology & Genetic Engineering: Help and Review
- Analyzing Scientific Data in Biology: Help and Review