About This Chapter
During this chapter, you'll learn about Christianity's formation and the religion's relation to Judaism. Lessons cover the Gospels and sacraments, which are recognized and followed by Christians. Lessons on Christianity's history analyze the Crusades, the Great Schism, the Reformation and the Ecumenical Movement. This chapter is designed to teach you about:
- Christianity's ties to Judaism and its early history
- The role of the early Church fathers
- The conversation of Constantine and ascent of Christianity
- A timeline of the Great Crusades
- Causes and effects of the Protestant Reformation
- Reasons behind the Ecumenical Movement of the 20th century
|The Gospels: The Life of Christ||Summarize the birth, life, death and resurrection of Christ.|
|The Early Christian Church and its Ties to Judaism||Survey the early Christian Church and how the religion relates to Judaism.|
|Judaism and Christianity in the Roman Empire||Compare Judaism to Christianity, looking at their places in history and the spread of their languages and ideals.|
|Paul and the Early Church Fathers||List and describe the Twelve Disciples, as well as Paul and Peter.|
|The Pharisees and Sadducees||Analyze the Pharisees and Sadducees' early criticisms of the deity of Christ.|
|Stephen and Christian Persecution||Recount Christian persecution in the Roman Empire, beginning with the death of Stephen.|
|The Conversion of Constantine and the Ascent of Christianity||Chronicle the conversion of Constantine and subsequent ascent of Christianity from persecuted underdog to the state religion.|
|St. Augustine's City of God||Describe and detail St. Augustine's book, City of God.|
|Charlemagne's Holy Roman Empire and the Divine Right to Rule||Explore Charlemagne's Holy Roman Empire and his relationship to the Church.|
|The Great Crusades: History and Timeline||Recount the history and timeline of the Great Crusades.|
|The Great Schism Between the East and Western Churches||State the reasons behind the Great Schism between the Eastern and Western Churches.|
|How Thomas Aquinas Saved the Faith from Reason||Explain how Thomas Aquinas saved the Christian faith from reason.|
|Martin Luther, the 95 Theses and the Birth of the Protestant Reformation||Understand Martin Luther's 95 Theses, which birthed the Protestant Reformation.|
|Religious Reform in Switzerland: Calvin and Zwingli's Teachings in the Reformation||Look at religious reform in Switzerland, including Calvin and Zwingli's teachings.|
|The Sacraments||Analyze the different Sacraments recognized by Christians.|
|The Council of Trent: The Catholic Church Survives the Reformation||Summarize the Council of Trent and the Catholic Church's survival during the Reformation.|
|The Ecumenical Movement||Analyze the Ecumenical Movement's attempt to bring Christian denominations closer to one another in the 20th century.|
1. The Gospels: The Life of Christ
This lesson will be a brief exploration of the life of Christ. It will highlight His virgin birth, public ministry, the reasons for His crucifixion, His resurrection and the Christian message that Christ offered salvation to all who believe in His name.
2. The Early Christian Church and Its Ties to Judaism
This lesson will explore the early Christian Church and its close connection to Judaism. It will highlight the similarities of these two faiths in reference to the Holy Scriptures while also exploring their disagreement over the person of Jesus Christ.
3. Paul and the Early Church Fathers
This lesson will identify the earliest Church Fathers as the 12 disciples and the Apostle Paul. In doing this, it will highlight the persecution of the Christian Church as well as the conversion of Saul, known to history as Paul.
4. Early Critics of Christ: Pharisees and Sadducees
This lesson will seek to explain the ancient Jewish sects known to history as the Sadducees and the Pharisees. Along with these sects' beliefs and positions in society, it will also explore their dealings with Jesus Christ.
5. St. Stephen & Christians in the Roman Empire
For much of the early history of Christianity, worship was heavily persecuted. In this lesson, we look at the beginning of that persecution with Saint Stephen, as well as the changing relationship between Rome and the Church.
6. The Conversion of Constantine and the Ascent of Christianity
This lesson will explain the conversion of Constantine and the ascent of Christianity. In doing this, it will highlight the Edict of Milan and the famous Council of Nicaea.
7. St. Augustine's City of God
This lesson explores the life of St. Augustine and one his most famous works, The City of God. As we explore this work, we'll highlight Rome's disdain for the Christian faith and Augustine's argument against Rome's religious position.
8. Charlemagne's Holy Roman Empire and the Divine Right to Rule
This lesson will explore the rule of Charlemagne and his exercise of the divine right of kings. It will highlight his reign as Holy Roman Emperor, focusing on his military conquests and his cultural reforms.
9. The Great Crusades: History and Timeline
This lesson examines the utter failure of the later crusades. We look at some of the factors that led to this failure. We then have a glimpse at each of the major crusades abroad, as well as the political and heretical crusades in Europe.
10. The Great Schism Between the East and Western Churches
This lesson will define and explain the Great Schism, which led to the formation of Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. In doing so, it will highlight the political and cultural factors that led to the the great divide.
11. Thomas Aquinas' Influence on the Catholic Church
St. Thomas Aquinas was perhaps the most important figure of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. This lesson examines what he did to help protect the Church against a rebirth of critical thinking by using critical thinking to defend the Church.
12. Martin Luther, the 95 Theses and the Birth of the Protestant Reformation
This lesson covers the start of the Protestant Reformation. It begins by comparing the vast array and peacefulness of Christian denominations in modern days to the limited choices and violence of the past. Then it goes into the story of Martin Luther, from his 95 Theses through the Diet of Worms up to the beginning of the German Peasant Revolt.
13. Religious Reform in Switzerland: Calvin & Zwingli's Teachings in the Reformation
The Protestant Reformation resulted in many people splitting from the Catholic Church. This lesson explores the effect of the Reformation in Switzerland under the leadership of Zwingli and Calvin.
14. The Seven Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church
This lesson will explore the seven Catholic sacraments of baptism, Eucharist, reconciliation, confirmation, marriage, Holy Orders, and Anointing of the Sick. In doing so, it will also highlight penance and confession.
15. The Council of Trent: The Catholic Church Survives the Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a movement of Christians who disagreed with some of the teachings and actions of the Catholic Church. This article explores the effect of the Reformation on the Church.
16. The Ecumenical Movement of the 20th Century
This lesson will seek to explain the Ecumenical Movement of the 20th century. In doing so it will highlight Protestantism, the Edinburgh Missionary Conference, and the first Council of World Churches.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 79 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.