ABA Therapist: Job Description & Career Requirements
Learn about the education and preparation needed to become an ABA (applied behavioral analysis) therapist. Get a quick overview of the key requirements, plus details about degree programs, job duties and state licensure to determine if this might be the career for you.
Applied behavioral analysis (ABA) therapists are behavioral development professionals who study how environment impacts behavior to help patients overcome a range of mental and social challenges. Many ABA therapists work with autistic children and other patients with developmental issues, either in a clinical setting or in the patient's home. These therapists often reinforce positive, learned behaviors using specialized techniques that may include reward systems, incidental teaching, pivotal response training and/or milieu therapy. Becoming an ABA therapist requires formal education in psychology, behavior analysis, or a related field of study. Occupational opportunities exist for therapists at graduate degree levels and, in a more limited scope, at undergraduate degree levels. Generally, ABA therapists are also required to obtain state licensure.
|Required Education||Normally a bachelor's degree, at minimum|
|Other Requirements||State licensure and, in some cases, a master's or doctoral degree|
|Projected Job Growth (2012-2022)||29% - 31% *|
|Median Salary (2015)||$36,148**|
Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics **Payscale.com
ABA Therapist Requirements
Education requirements for ABA therapists vary according to employer. Some ABA therapists enter the occupation with bachelor's degrees or master's degrees in psychology or related fields; however, most clinical and private practice ABA therapists are required to hold doctoral degrees.
ABA therapists who hold only four-year degrees may experience limited employment opportunities. They may find job opportunities with the federal government, which requires therapists to have bachelor's degrees with at least 24 credit hours in psychology. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the federal government is one of the few employers that hires therapists without graduate degrees and competition for these positions is high (www.bls.gov).
Master's degree programs in applicable fields may prepare ABA therapists for positions in industrial-organizational psychology or as researchers assisting psychologists with doctoral degrees. Master of Arts in Applied Behavior Analysis programs generally last two years and focus on principles and procedures of behavioral analysis. Along with attending courses in observational methods, behavioral applications, and developmental disability treatment, students may participate in clinical practicums. Master's degree students generally complete thesis projects based upon research conducted during their graduate studies.
Some colleges and universities offer Ph.D. programs in applied behavioral analysis, which place greater emphasis upon theory and research in the field. Such degree programs typically take two to three years to complete, in addition to four years of undergraduate school and a two-year master's degree program. Courses may include verbal behavior, developmental disabilities, experimental analysis, research in behavior analysis, and pharmacology. In addition to dissertation projects, most doctoral students are required to complete practicums or internships to graduate.
Licensure is mandatory for ABA therapists who work directly with patients, particularly those who practice in clinical and counseling settings. Licensing requirements differ in each state; however, most states require applicants to hold doctoral degrees, complete internship experience and accrue one to two years of practical experience. Candidates must also pass a state licensing exam and maintain licensure by earning continuing education credits.
ABA therapists who work in schools must hold the Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP) credential from the National Association of School Psychologists (www.nasponline.org). Certification candidates must have completed at least 60 hours of graduate school and 1,200 hours of internship experience. Candidates may then earn the NCSP after passing the National School Psychology Examination.
Some ABA therapists choose to demonstrate expertise in the field by earning professional certification. The Behavior Analyst Certification Board offers the Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) designation to therapists who hold at least master's degrees in approved majors (www.bacb.com). Qualified candidates may become certified after passing the BCBA certification examination. BCBA certification is often required for admission into applied behavior analysis graduate degree programs.
Salary Info and Job Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS, www.bls.gov) projected that the employment of occupational therapists would grow by about 29% between 2012 and 2022, quite a bit faster than average for all occupations. At the same time, the BLS estimated that job opportunities for behavioral disorder and substance abuse counselors would increase by 31% during that same decade. According to PayScale.com, ABA therapists earn between $24,456 and $50,747 per year, with a median salary of $36,148 as of March 2015.
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