The two prominent career routes in the field of applied biology are as technicians and research scientists. Researchers formulate, direct and conduct studies in the field of applied biology, while technicians perform routine procedures and tests, maintain equipment and manage supplies.
Technician educational requirements vary by field, but almost always require postsecondary education, which could be an associate's or a bachelor's degree related to the desired career field, such as crop science, agricultural science, biotechnology or bioengineering. Research and scientist positions typically require at least a master's degree and usually a doctoral degree in the appropriate specialization. Several years in a post-doctoral position are often needed for high-level research positions.
|Career Title||Biological Technician||Food Scientist||Environmental Engineer|
|Education Requirements||Bachelor's degree||Bachelor's degree minimum; graduate-level degree often required||Bachelor's degree|
|Projected Job Growth (2012-2022)*||10%||11% (food scientists and technologists)||15%|
|Median Salary (2013)*||$40,710||$59,630 (food scientists and technologists)||$82,220|
Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Applied biology focuses on solving specific real-world problems and creating biological products. Most applied biology careers are with government agencies or private industries, and while some applied biology professionals work in labs to manufacture pharmaceuticals, others create better methods for growing food and maintaining natural resources. Besides the careers detailed below, other applied biology work options include pharmaceutical research, bioengineering, civil engineering, rural development and environmental toxicology.
Biological technicians assist scientists as they carry out experiments by maintaining lab equipment and aiding in research and data-gathering processes. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), employment of biological technicians was expected to increase by 10% between 2012 and 2022, which is about the same as the average rate for all occupations within the United States. Biological technicians are listed as earning a median salary of $40,710 per year, as of May 2013 (www.bls.gov).
Food scientists study the composition of food, including nutrient content, by using chemistry and other sciences. They develop foods with better nutritional value, quality or taste. The BLS reported that the employment of food scientists and technologists was expected to increase by 11% from 2012 to 2022. Their website also lists the median annual income of food scientists and technologists as $59,630, as of 2013.
Environmental engineers try to solve environmental issues by using engineering, biology, and other scientific approaches. Protecting plants from environmental and human elements is a focus for many applied biology scientists. The BLS projected a 15% increase in employment for environmental engineers from 2012 to 2022. The median annual income for these professionals was $82,220 in 2013, according to the BLS.