Become a Genetic Engineer: Education and Career Roadmap
Research the requirements to become a genetic engineer. Learn about the job description and read the step-by-step process to start a career in genetic engineering.
Do I Want to Be a Genetic Engineer?
As a genetic engineer, you'll alter genes in order to improve the biological capabilities of humans, plants and animals. In this field, your main goal is to help people lead quality lives. As a gene therapist, you'll treat human patients with genetic illnesses. Otherwise, you might work in a non-medical environment as a biochemist or biophysicist, exploring living organisms such as plants used as food crops. Your work will involve handling harmful organisms and toxins. You'll typically work full-time with a consistent schedule.
To work in a genetic engineering field, you'll usually need a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree. You may pursue a degree in biochemistry or biophysics. If you want to treat human patients, you'll likely need a medical degree as well. However, you could work in some entry-level jobs with a bachelor's or master's degree. The following table outlines the primary requirements that employers look for when hiring genetic engineers.
|Degree Level||Bachelor's or master's degree for entry-level careers; doctoral degree for independent research careers*|
|Degree Field(s)||Biochemistry, biophysics or related fields*|
|Key Skills||Strong understanding of scientific methods and rules, complex problem solving, critical thinking**|
|Computer Skills||Ability to use computer aided design (CAD) software, graphics or photo imaging software, PERL, Python, analytical software programs and word processing software programs**|
|Technical Skills||Ability to use lasers, spectrometers, light scattering equipment, binocular light compound microscopes, benchtop centrifuges or similar laboratory equipment**|
|Additional Requirements||Excellent mathematical, deductive and inductive reasoning skills; reading, writing, and oral comprehension skills**|
Sources: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, **ONetOnline.
Step 1: Earn a Bachelor's Degree
A genetic engineer starts by earning a bachelor's degree, typically in a branch of the physical sciences, such as biology or chemistry. Some schools offer undergraduate programs in genetic engineering or in closely-related fields such as biological engineering. Curricula typically include rigorous courses in calculus, biology, chemistry and physics.
Step 2: Earn an Advanced Degree
A bachelor's degree may be sufficient educational preparation for some entry-level careers in genetic engineering. However, many employers only hire candidates with advanced degrees (master's or Ph.D.). Advanced degree programs allow aspiring genetic engineers to gain valuable experience through laboratory-based research. To carry out genetic engineering research independently, one should expect to earn a doctoral degree.
- Be part of an internship program. While attending a graduate school, it is a good idea for students to participate in an internship program to gain experience. Universities often have fellowship and research programs that allow students to receive relevant training before leaving the academic environment. The Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES), The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other professional or governmental organizations in the field may post internship opportunities.
Step 3: Gain Work Experience
Genetic engineering is a broad field. Engineers can specialize in agriculture, healthcare and other specialties. They may work as molecular biologists, breast cancer researchers, forensic scientists and genetic counselors, among other positions. These careers can be found at universities, healthcare organizations, research and development firms, pharmaceutical companies, hospitals and government agencies.
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