Biotechnologists modify or manipulate living organisms to develop new products, such as pharmaceuticals or biofuels. They conduct experiments and develop materials in public and private laboratories. Biotechnology employment can be found across several industries, and biotechnologists can be employed as biochemists and biophysicists or medical scientists. Degree requirements can vary for biochemistry and biophysics jobs; those that involve independent research might require a Ph.D. Medical scientists need to have a doctoral degree and a M.D.; depending on their duties, a valid medical license may also be required.
|Biochemist and Biophysicist||Medical Scientist|
|Required Education||Bachelor's, master's or Ph.D.||Ph.D. and M.D.|
|Other Requirements||None||Medical license for some jobs|
|Projected Job Growth (2012-2022)||19%*||13%*|
|Median Annual Salary (2013)||$84,320*||$79,840*|
Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Job Description for a Biotechnologist
Biotechnologists develop products from living systems. Biotechnology commonly refers to genetically derived materials, but can also refer to developments based in microbiology, molecular biology and cell biology. Biotechnologists work within several different industries including agriculture, food manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals.
Biotechnology professionals may specialize in one or more subfields. Specialties include genomics, the comparative study of gene structures; proteomics, which is the study of protein structures; and bioinformatics, which combines biology, computer science and information technology. Products developed by biotechnologists include high-yield crops, disease-resistant farm animals, gene therapy treatments, drugs and biofuels.
Duties of a Biotechnologist
Entry-level biotechnologists can work as research technicians. They set up instruments and laboratory equipment used to conduct and monitor experiments such as centrifuges, flasks and spectrophotometers. They also record data and may prepare reports for a leading research scientist.
Senior biotechnologists design research studies, analyze data and develop procedures. For example, a scientist using recombinant DNA technology must choose the best method to insert foreign DNA into an organism, which can trigger development of new proteins or create an organism with more desirable characteristics.
Outlook for Biotechnologists
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) projected employment of biochemists and biophysicists, who work largely for scientific research and development services and the pharmaceutical and manufacturing industry, to increase 19% (faster than the average for all occupations) from 2012-2022 (www.bls.gov). Two popular research areas are biofuels and biomedical research.
The BLS also expected employment for medical scientists to increase due in part to the growth of biotechnology. Medical scientist jobs were projected to increase 13% from 2012-2022, according to the BLS. Common employers of medical scientists include research and development services; colleges and universities; and medical and surgical hospitals.