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Surgeon: Career Summary and Required Education

Surgeons require a significant amount of formal education. Learn about the education, job duties and licensure requirements to see if this is the right career for you.

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Essential Information

Surgeons perform operations and other medical procedures to treat injuries, diseases and deformities. Becoming a surgeon is a lengthy process generally requiring four years of undergraduate school, four years of medical school and 3-10 years of residency and fellowship training. Surgeons also continue the education process throughout their careers in order to maintain licensure and stay informed of medical advances.

Required Education Doctorate degree and post-doctoral training
Other Requirements Licensure and board-certification
Projected Job Growth (2012-22) 18% for all surgeons and physicians*
Average Salary (2013) $233,150*

Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Surgeon Career Summary

Surgeons are specialized physicians who operate on patients to correct or remove malformations, repair injuries or conduct preventative procedures on patients. They may also conduct examinations on patients and advise them on their medical situations. Many surgeons specialize in one particular field, such as orthopedic, cardiovascular or neurological surgery.

Employment Outlook

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), surgeons and physicians are expected to experience a significant rise in job prospects in the coming years ( Overall employment was expected to grow 18% from 2012-2022. The increasing demand for surgeons is attributed to continuing development of healthcare and associated industries, as well as a growing elderly population.

Salary Information

Surgeons, along with physicians, are some of the highest-paid professionals of any occupation. In May 2013, the BLS reported that surgeons earned an average salary of $233,150.

Surgeon Education Requirements

Before entering medical school, aspiring surgeons must complete undergraduate school to earn bachelor's degrees. These 4-year degrees do not have to focus specifically on medicine; however, curricula should focus heavily on the physical sciences to prepare students for the strong emphasis on science in medical school. Courses in anatomy, biology, chemistry, math and physiology may be beneficial. Some medical schools admit students after only three years of undergraduate school.

Medical Degree

With bachelor's degrees, students are prepared to attend medical school and pursue Medical Doctor (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degrees. M.D. degree program curricula are generally divided into two years of foundational medical courses followed by two years of clinical clerkships. During clerkships, students work directly with patients, applying classroom instruction obtained in the first two years to diagnose illnesses and provide healthcare.

Post-Doctoral Training

After medical school, students typically continue their medical training in residency programs, gaining practical experience in a chosen specialty under the supervision of licensed physicians. Some specialties include general surgery, orthopedic surgery, plastic surgery or urology. According to the American Medical Association (AMA), these programs can last 3-7 years depending on the specialty, though general surgery residencies typically take five years to complete ( Surgeons who wish to focus their careers on sub-specialties of the profession must complete an additional 1-3 years of post-doctoral training in fellowship programs.


Along with extensive, formal training from an accredited medical school, all states require surgeons to obtain medical licensure. Licensure entails passage of the United States Medical Licensing Examination or the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Exam. Surgeons must also become board-certified in surgery and any subspecialties by the American Board of Medical Specialists or the American Osteopathic Association. Surgeons are generally required to complete continuing education credits throughout their careers to maintain licensure and certification.

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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics