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In the United States, a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) is a professional degree that, in combination with state licensure, qualifies its holder to practice medicine. In the first years of an M.D. program, students commonly train in advanced techniques in fields like biology, anatomy and physiology.
Medical doctorate students might explore various specialty fields, such as cardiology, toxicology, orthopedics, or oncology. Most programs then require students to complete one or more comprehensive exams before beginning several semesters of clinical rotation, which allow students to gain experience working with patients. The last year of a doctor's degree program might culminate in a dissertation or exit exam. Graduates then must complete a residency to qualify to practice medicine in the United States. Most such programs for aspiring doctors offer services that help students look for and apply to subsequent medical residency programs.
Coursework in medical programs often varies according to which specialty a student elects to pursue; however, some courses are required for all medical students. Examples of these core courses include the following:
The employment rate for physicians and surgeons was expected to rise 14% between 2014 and 2024, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.bls.gov). This growth was anticipated mostly due to expansion of the health care industry and an aging population that would require additional medical care. Since there are numerous specialties for doctors to pursue, salaries may be very different. The median annual salary for family and general practitioners was $184,390 in May 2015, according to the BLS.
While a medical degree is a terminal degree, graduates still must complete a residency and earn licensure. Medical licenses are awarded by state medical boards. Applicants typically must complete 1-2 years of residency, in addition to passing the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination.