Should I Become a Nurse Practitioner?
Nurse practitioners are advanced practice registered nurses (RNs) who have obtained a master's degree in a nurse practitioner specialty. They perform examinations relevant to their specialty, make assessments and diagnoses, order and perform diagnostic tests, perform minor surgical procedures, provide medical treatment, and prescribe medications under the supervision of a licensed doctor. These professionals spend many hours standing and might be required to lift or move patients who need assistance.
|Degree Level||Master's degree or post-graduate certificate|
|Degree Field(s)||Bachelor's degree in nursing; master's degree or certificate in a nurse practitioner specialty|
|Licensure and Certification||All states license RNs and nurse practitioners; several credentialing authorities certify nurse practitioners according to their specialty|
|Key Skills||Basic word processing, data entry, and automated medical records; specialized medical equipment such as IV infusion pumps, cardiac monitoring devices, EKG units, oxygen analyzers, nebulizers according to the nurse practitioner's specialty|
|Average Annual Salary (May 2015)||$101,260 per year (nurse practitioners)|
Sources: Careerbuilder job listings (September, 2012), State nursing boards, Nurse practitioner certification boards
Step 1: Earn a Bachelor's Degree
The first step to becoming a registered nurse is obtaining a Bachelor of Science in nursing degree (BSN). This degree takes four years to complete. Courses in nursing degree programs generally include anatomy and physiology, patient health assessment, pharmacology basics, pathophysiology basics, and nursing throughout all life stages. Students also participate in supervised clinical rotations in several medical specialties.
Step 2: Obtain State License
All nurses must be licensed by the state before they can practice. Most states require candidates to pass the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) administered by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing. There may also be additional state nursing board requirements in order to earn and maintain state licensure. The time frame to complete this process depends on the state, but generally only takes a few months to process.
Step 3: Choose a Specialty
Aspiring nurse practitioners should choose their specialty before starting a graduate program. This is helpful because many graduate degree nurse practitioner programs encourage or require applicants to have at least 1-2 years of experience working as a registered nurse in their chosen specialty. Nurse practitioner specialties vary widely and include family practice, pediatrics, gerontology, women's health, midwifery, acute care, mental health, anesthesia, and many more. The experience can be obtained in a variety of clinical settings, depending on the specialty.
Step 4: Earn a Master's Degree
Candidates may choose from several graduate programs in order to become nurse practitioners. Nurses who have a master's degree in a different nursing background may opt to complete a post-master's graduate certificate program as a nurse practitioner. This can take five months to a year to complete, depending on the specialty. Master's degree programs for RNs with a bachelor's degree generally take 1-3 years to complete, depending on the school and the specialty. Graduates with a non-nursing bachelor's degree have the option of enrolling in a BSN-to-master's degree fast-track program. These programs build upon the candidate's prior education and provide about a year's worth of intensive coursework and clinical experience in the nursing discipline, which results in a bachelor's degree in nursing. Once that portion is completed, the student moves directly into the master's degree nurse practitioner specialty program, which proceeds according to the normal time frame of 1-3 years to complete.
Step 5: Apply for Certification
Graduates of accredited nurse practitioner master's degree programs are generally eligible to take the nurse practitioner certification exam for their practice specialty. Most credentialing agencies require applicants to have a valid RN license, to have performed a minimum required number of hours of nursing practice in their specialty, and to pass the examination. The minimum number of hours required for certification varies by specialty and generally runs between 750 and 1400 hours. This could take from six months up to a year to complete depending on the hours or shifts the candidate works.
Step 6: Advancement Opportunities
Nurse practitioners are considered advanced in their field, but there are still opportunities for further advancement. One such opportunity is moving into an administrative role, managing other nurses and staff members. Some nurse practitioners may choose to teach other nurses, while those who have doctoral degrees may choose to go into the research side of medicine.
Nurse practitioners are advanced practice registered nurses (RNs) who must obtain a four year bachelor's degree in nursing, pass the RN exam, and obtain a nursing license, have one or two years of nursing experience, complete a one to three year master's program or equivalent in a nursing specialty, and apply for a nurse practitioner certification.