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How to Become a Nurse Practitioner

Learn how to become a nurse practitioner. Research the education and career requirements, training and licensure information, as well as experience required for starting a career in the medical field.

Should I Be a Nurse Practitioner?

A nurse practitioner (NP) is an advanced practice registered nurse who provides health care services similar to those of a physician. NPs may choose to specialize in family, pediatric or geriatric nursing. Common duties include diagnosing and treating illnesses and injuries, prescribing medications and educating patients. NPs may also order diagnostic tests and analyze the results. The work of a nurse practitioner can be physically and emotionally demanding, since they must spend shifts standing for long periods and making life-and-death decisions. Some of these nurses must be on call or work night and weekend shifts.

Career Requirements

Degree Level Master's or doctorate degree
Degree Field Nursing
Experience Minimum 1 year experience as a NP
Licensure and Certification Nurse practitioner licensing and certification required
Key Skills Problem solving, decision-making, communication, leadership and critical thinking skills, resourcefulness, compassion
Salary $85,522 per year (2015 median salary for all nurse practitioners)

Sources: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, O*NET OnLine, Mayo Clinic, Online Job Postings (July to August 2015), Payscale.com (July 2015)

Step 1: Earn a Bachelor's Degree in Nursing

Students on a path to becoming a nurse practitioner will need to earn a bachelor's degree to qualify for necessary graduate study. Completion of a bachelor's degree program prepares students to meet state requirements for licensure as a registered nurse (RN). Common areas studied in undergraduate nursing programs include pharmacology, anatomy and physiology, pediatric nursing and community health. In the clinical experience part of the program, students will have the opportunity to practice skills learned in the classroom under the guidance of their instructor.

Success Tips:

  • Take communications classes. Prospective nurse practitioners may benefit from taking communications classes, as excellent writing and speaking skills is important to concisely explain procedures to patients and their families.
  • Enroll in an accelerated program. This option allows students who already hold a non-nursing bachelor's degree to complete a program of study more quickly.

Step 2: Become a Registered Nurse

Every state requires a practicing nurse to first pass the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Additional licensing and registration requirements, which typically include background checks and fingerprinting may be required at the state level. Before candidates can pursue a graduate degree or advanced nursing licensure, an RN license is required.

Step 3: Complete a Graduate Degree in Nursing

Registered nurses with a bachelor's degree who are interested in becoming nurse practitioners can qualify for the position by earning a master's or doctoral degree in nursing. Many nurse practitioners specialize in a specific area of medicine, such as pediatrics or family medicine during their graduate study. These programs typically take 2 to 3 years to complete and require students to take courses, seminars and lectures in addition to completing a clinical residency. Common courses may include healthcare management, pathophysiology and advanced pharmacology.

Step 4: Obtain Advanced Practice Nursing Licensure

Most states require additional licensure to work as an advanced practice nurse. Advanced practice nurses operate in one of four roles: nurse practitioner, nurse anesthetist, nurse midwife or clinical nurse specialist. Licensing is regulated by individual states, and requirements vary. However, all NPs must first be licensed RNs with a master's degree in one of the four advanced practice specialties. Some states mandate extra exams and professional experience. Many states require continuing education classes or maintenance of a national certification to renew a license.

Step 5: Specialize Through Certification

The successful completion of a graduate degree program and licensure requirements prepares graduates to sit for certification examinations specific to their careers. The American Academy of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) are two organizations that offer national certification commonly recognized by state nursing boards. Certification usually requires passing an examination, and most organizations mandate continuing education to maintain the credentials. Available specialty examinations nurse practitioners may choose from include acute care, diabetes management, family care, school nursing, mental health, gerontology and pediatrics.

Success Tip:

  • Prepare for the exam. Nurses wishing to specialize in a specific area of practice should obtain the proper materials needed to study for the exam. Individuals are strongly encouraged to take any practice tests available.

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