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Medical degrees are offered at many top U.S. medical schools and can include Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine programs. Outlined below are three such schools offering medical degree programs.
Many universities' medical schools offer graduate degrees that prepare graduates to gain licensure as physicians, undertake research careers or both. Two of the most common degrees offered at U.S. medical schools are outlined below.
Medical degrees conferred in the U.S. typically include a Doctor of Medicine or M.D. Students can earn this degree from a 4-year medical school after taking classes in areas including microbiology, pharmacology and physiology. Practical experience is also provided in the form of supervised rotations in such specialties as surgery, cardiology and obstetrics. After earning this degree, graduates must serve residencies in clinics or hospitals for 3-8 years before taking board and state licensing exams.
Another popular U.S. medical degree is the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.). Physicians holding this degree specialize in holistic diagnoses and treatment techniques that take into consideration the relationship between the body's nerves, bones, muscles and organs. Many D.O.s are primary care physicians working in specialties such as internal medicine, pediatrics and family practice. D.O.s must earn their degree from a 4-year osteopathic medical school. Programs include courses on osteopathic principles and practice, histology and physiology. Graduates are also required to complete a 12-month internship; they typically serve 2- to 6-year residencies before taking board and state licensing exams.
Profiled below are three medical schools ranked in the top 25 for their graduate research and primary care programs, as determined by U.S. News & World Report in 2013. Also mentioned are some of the medical degrees and Ph.D.s conferred by these universities.
Harvard University's Medical School was established in 1782. Its Division of Medical Sciences was founded in 1908 for students wishing to pursue careers in medical research or teaching. The division offers four Ph.D. programs, including biological and biomedical sciences, immunology, virology and neuroscience. Harvard Medical School has 11 departments and 49 hospital-based departments. Through these departments, joint M.D. programs are offered in public policy, public health and management.
The University of Pennsylvania's School of Medicine was established in 1765, making it the nation's oldest medical school. The university was also among the top 15 organizations in terms of funding received from the National Institutes of Health for 2014. Three affiliate hospitals - where students perform internships and receive on-the-job training - include the Penn Presbyterian Medical Center, the Pennsylvania Hospital and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. More than 40 clinical departments are offered, such as dermatology, radiology, anesthesia, neurology, plastic surgery, neonatology and urology.
The Department of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University received more funding from the National Institutes of Health than any other school in 2014. Two medical house staff programs are offered at Johns Hopkins, one at Johns Hopkins Hospital and the other at Bayview Medical Center. Bayview is where trainees go who are on a primary care or categorical track for fellowship training. Johns Hopkins University's Department of Medicine offers an M.D. to Ph.D. program and clerkships in medicine. More than 25 divisions make up the Department of Medicine, such as cell biology, emergency medicine, pediatrics, pharmacology, radiology and neurology.