Students may begin a registered nursing career by earning an Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) or a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN). Depending on previous education and nursing interests, nurses who wish to continue their education and become nurse practitioners or specialists may consider a Master of Science in Nursing (MSN). Master's programs offer a variety of concentrations, including gerontology, emergency care and obstetrics. All levels include clinical practicums and labs in addition to lecture-based courses.
Associate Degree in Nursing
An ADN program typically takes two years to complete and is designed to prepare students for the demands of a career as a registered nurse (RN). For any ADN program, students must have a high school diploma or equivalent and proof of a Hepatitis B vaccination. Some schools may also consider high school grade point averages or prefer that students complete general education courses before being admitted into the nursing program. Once admitted, students complete classroom study and clinical work. In the classroom, students get a foundation in nursing skills and science courses. Clinical courses allow students to work in the field, learning practical skills in nursing. Topics covered include:
- Mental health nursing
- Adult health concepts
- Patient assessment and management
Bachelor of Science in Nursing
BSN programs also prepare students for careers as registered nurses. Some schools may offer different options for completing a BSN program, including a traditional 4-year program, an accelerated program, and an RN-to-BSN program for students who are already registered nurses. To enter a BSN program, students will probably need to meet minimum grade point average (GPA) requirements. Some schools may also require students to complete lower-level or foundational coursework before being allowed to enroll in a BSN program, which includes clinical work in addition to the following classes:
- Nursing care basics
- Illness management
- Family and community nursing care
- Medical ethics
Master of Science in Nursing
MSN programs prepare experienced RNs to enter advanced practice nursing roles. Programs generally take two years to complete, and students study in the area of advanced practice they wish to enter, such as adult nurse practitioner, neonatal nurse practitioner or health educator. Entry into a master's degree program usually requires an active nursing license, a bachelor's degree in nursing and letters of reference. Some schools may require students to pass a drug screening and criminal background check. Curriculum can vary greatly depending on students' area of focus, though general topics covered in a program may include:
- Nursing informatics
- Nursing research
- Complex healthcare concepts
- Patient care management
Licensing and Continuing Education
All states require nurses to be licensed, which involves meeting state-specific requirements and passing the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Advanced practice nurses must meet additional licensing or certification requirements set by each state.
RNs may also wish to seek voluntary certification through a professional organization, such as the American Nurses Association. Professional certification can help an RN prove his or her competency in a specialty area.
Nurses who've completed ADN programs and wish to pursue advanced nursing positions may continue their education through a bachelor's degree. Nurses may also wish to complete master's or doctoral degrees in nursing in order to qualify for advanced practice nursing positions, work in research or to start a career in nursing education.
Popular Career Options
After completing a BSN program and obtaining a nursing license, nurses may work in a variety of settings and specialty areas. Nursing care is needed in hospitals, healthcare centers, clinics, nursing homes and hospice organizations. In addition, nurses may work in several specialty fields, including these:
- Home health
- Obstetrics and gynecology
- Public health
- Mental health
- Emergency care
Graduates of a master's degree program in nursing are prepared to enter advanced practice nursing specialty areas. Graduates may qualify for positions such as these:
- Clinical nurse specialist
- Nurse practitioner
- Nurse midwife
- Nurse anesthetist
Employment Outlook and Salary Info
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), registered nurses represented one of the largest occupations in healthcare in 2015, with around 2.7 million jobs. About 30% of those jobs were found in hospitals. The BLS projected a job growth of 16% from 2014-2024.
The mean annual wage as of May 2015 for registered nurses was $71,000. The 10th-90th percentile range wages were $46,360-$101,630. The median annual wage was $67,490, reported the BLS.
To become a nurse you can complete an associate, bachelor's, or master's degree program. The level of education depends on your desired position.