Veterinary Education Requirements by Profession Level

Veterinary science is the study of healthcare for animals. Continue reading for an overview of the requirements, as well as career and salary info for some career options for graduates.

Essential Information

Two common positions in the veterinary field are veterinarian and veterinary technician. Veterinarians are animal doctors who treat all types of animals, from house pets to large animals to exotic species. Veterinary technicians assist veterinarians. Educational requirements for a veterinarian usually include both an undergraduate and graduate degree related to animal science, while a technician's requirements include only an associate's degree.

Career Veterinary Technician Veterinarian
Education Requirements Associate degree for technicians; Bachelor's degree for technologists Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Projected Job Growth (2012-2022)* 30% (for veterinary technicians and technologists) 12%
Average Salary (2014)* $32,350 (for veterinary technicians and technologists) $98,230

Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Career Requirements

For those interested in the veterinary sciences, the opportunity to assist sick or injured animals is often the main draw. The veterinary careers available all require differing amounts of formal education. While an associate's degree will suffice for a vet technician, a proper veterinarian must earn a doctorate, just like a doctor specializing in humans would.


According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), veterinarians are required to hold a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree to legally practice medicine on animals ( This degree must come from a school accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA); as of December 2011, the AVMA listed 28 accredited schools in the United States ( Most DVM programs take four years to complete, although dual-degree programs, such as a combined DVM and master's degree program, can take longer to complete.

Coursework in a DVM program generally includes animal anatomy, veterinary physiology, systematic pathology and veterinary technologies. Students are also required to complete supervised clinical hours where they treat and diagnose animal patients. Prior to being accepted into a DVM program, applicants must meet prerequisite requirements, which can include completing undergraduate courses or earning a bachelor's degree. Some common prerequisite courses include genetics, chemistry, biochemistry and statistics.

Veterinary Technician

Educational requirements for veterinary technicians usually include an undergraduate degree, such as an associate's degree in veterinary technology. Prerequisite courses for veterinary technology degree programs can include healthcare biology, chemistry and laboratory training. Coursework for the veterinary technology program covers veterinary medical terminology, animal behaviorisms, animal anatomy, veterinary office procedures and animal handling.

Licensing Requirements for Veterinary Careers


Upon completing an accredited DVM program, veterinarians must earn a license to practice medicine. Each state has different licensing procedures, but the BLS notes that all states require applicants to pass at least one licensing exam, such as the North American Veterinary Licensing Exam. To verify that veterinarians understand state laws concerning the medical treatment of animals, some states require veterinarians to pass a jurisprudence test as part of the licensing process. License renewal requirements vary and may require applicants to complete continuing education coursework.

Veterinary Technician

Veterinary technicians, like veterinarians, must be credentialed by the state in which they work. This generally means becoming certified, licensed or registered, depending on the state. To obtain these credentials, veterinary technicians must meet education requirements and pass a credentialing examination, usually the National Veterinary Technician examination; however, both the education requirements and exam can vary by state as well.

Employment Outlook and Salary Information

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in 2014, veterinarians earned an annual average salary of $98,230, while veterinary technicians and technologists earned $32,350. The BLS predicted 12% employment growth for veterinarians between 2012 and 2022 and expected even faster growth of 30% for veterinary technicians and technologists during that same time.

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