How can you distinguish between cyclohexannol and cyclohexanecarboxylic acid using IR spectroscopy.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter. Functional groups will behave (vibrate, stretch, flex, wiggle, basically move around) at different ranges on the spectra based on the type of functional group. This can be used to identify and study chemical substances.
The width and location of the peak in an IR is indicative of what functional group caused it. Alcohol and carboxylic acid peaks are very broad verses carbonyl peaks which are very narrow and sharp. Substituted benzene rings have peaks that correspond to the substitution pattern (Mono, para, meta, etc) in the fingerprint and overtone regions of the IR.
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from AQA A-Level Chemistry: Practice and Study GuideChapter 2 / Lesson 13