On a map, 2 cm represents 68 miles. How many miles away are two cities that are 7 cm apart on the...


On a map, {eq}2 \textrm{ cm} {/eq} represents {eq}68 \textrm{ miles} {/eq}. How many miles away are two cities that are {eq}7 \textrm{ cm} {/eq} apart on the map?

Proportions and Variation:

In any numerical ratio, this denotes a relationship between two numbers {eq}x {/eq} and {eq}y {/eq}. On the other hand, a proportion shows the similarity between two ratios. When two variables are dependent, variations in the magnitude of one variable will have a proportional effect on the other. When there is an increase or decrease of a variable {eq}x {/eq} with respect to another {eq}y {/eq}, for a ratio or constant K, variations are present. In the case that we have a direct variation, it happens that when one variable increases the other increases, which can also be written as: {eq}\frac{{{y_1}}}{{{x_1}}} = \frac{{{y_2}}}{{{x_2}}} {/eq}.

Answer and Explanation:

{eq}\eqalign{ & {\text{In this specific case }}{\text{,we have two proportional values }}\,x\,\left( {centimeters} \right){\text{ }} \cr & {\text{and }}y\,\left( {miles} \right){\text{ that have a variation in directly proportional form}}{\text{. }} \cr & {\text{So we have:}} \cr & \,\,\,\,{x_1} = 2\,cm \cr & \,\,\,\,{y_1} = 68\,miles \cr & \,\,\,\,{x_2} = 7\,cm \cr & \,\,\,\,{y_2} = ?\,\,miles \cr & {\text{Since}}{\text{, }}x{\text{ and }}y{\text{ vary directly}}{\text{, then}}{\text{, when }}x{\text{ increases it also }} \cr & {\text{increases }}y{\text{. For this reason}}{\text{, it must be satisfied that:}} \cr & \,\,\,\,\frac{{{y_2}}}{{{x_2}}} = \frac{{{y_1}}}{{{x_1}}} \cr & {\text{So if we do cross - multiplying:}} \cr & \,\,\,\,{y_2} \cdot {x_1} = {y_1} \cdot {x_2} \cr & {\text{Now}}{\text{, solving for }}\,{y_2}{\text{:}} \cr & \,\,\,\,{y_2} = \frac{{{y_1} \cdot {x_2}}}{{{x_1}}} \cr & {\text{So}}{\text{, substituting the given values:}} \cr & \,\,\,\,{y_2} = \frac{{68 \times 7}}{2} = 238\,miles \cr & {\text{Therefore}}{\text{, }}\boxed{7{\text{ }}cm}{\text{ represent 238 miles}}{\text{.}} \cr} {/eq}

Learn more about this topic:

Ratios and Proportions: Definition and Examples

from Geometry: High School

Chapter 7 / Lesson 1

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