Through which are the chromosomes, transmitted according to the path of transmission of factors from the parental generation to offspring's as indicated by Mendle? Option are as follows:
(1) hereditary chapters
Mendel's Law of Segregation and Meiosis
Mendel's 1st law states that parents possess two factors (we now call them alleles of a gene) for a given character and that when parents form their sex cells, these factors segregate from each other so that a sex cell gets only one of the two factors. In fertilization, a sex cell from each parent combine to produce an offspring that has two factors (alleles) for each character. Mendel inferred that segregation of factors occurred from the traits, and ratios thereof, he observed among the F1 and F2 offspring from true-breeding (homozygous) pea plants.
The process of meiosis was described about 50 years later and the separation of homologous chromosomes into separate daughter cells during meiosis provided the explanation for how factors (alleles) segregated. Genes are located on chromosomes and when the two chromosomes of a pair separate, so do the two alleles of a gene located on that pair of chromosomes.
Answer and Explanation:
The correct choice is (4), gametes. Meiosis is the mechanism for segregation of chromosomes and the factors (alleles of genes) that reside on these chromosomes. Meiosis begins with a diploid cell in the male and female reproduction organs. The diploid cell first undergoes DNA replication during the preceding interphase to make copies of all the genetic information. In the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes separate. In the second meiotic division, the two daughter cells from the first division undergo separation of chromatids. The result is four haploid daughter cells, each with one factor (allele) for a given characteristic. If the parent cell was heterozygous for the character (e.g., Yy), then two of the gametes will have the Y factor and the other two gametes will have the y factor.
While which alleles are in parents and which their offspring receive is part of heredity and evolution, gamete formation is the mechanism of transmission of these alleles.
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from Biology 102: Basic GeneticsChapter 6 / Lesson 16