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High School Biology: Help and Review

Course Summary

Study important high school biology topics with this convenient help and review course. The course's short video lessons and self-assessment quizzes can help you prepare for tests, boost your grades or brush up on topics you missed in class.
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37 chapters in High School Biology: Help and Review

Course Practice Test

Check your knowledge of this course with a 50-question practice test.
  • Comprehensive test covering all topics
  • Detailed video explanations for wrong answers
Week {{::cp.getGoalWeekForTopic(4, 37)}}
Course Progress Best Score
Lesson 1 - Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups  Take Quiz
Lesson 2 - Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers  Take Quiz
Lesson 3 - Structure and Function of Carbohydrates  Take Quiz
Lesson 4 - Structure and Function of Lipids  Take Quiz
Lesson 5 - Proteins I: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 6 - Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids  Take Quiz
Lesson 7 - Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds  Take Quiz
Lesson 8 - Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure  Take Quiz
Lesson 9 - Carotenoid Pigments: Definition & Structure  Take Quiz
Lesson 10 - Organic Solvent: Definition & List  Take Quiz
Lesson 11 - Dipeptide: Definition, Formation & Structure  Take Quiz
Lesson 12 - Essential Amino Acid: Definition & Overview  Take Quiz
Lesson 13 - FADH2 & NADH: Definition & Overview  Take Quiz
Lesson 14 - Filaments: Definition & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 15 - Glutamic Acid: Structure, Formula & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 16 - Glycine: Formula, Structure & Benefits  Take Quiz
Lesson 17 - Polypeptide Chain: Definition, Structure & Synthesis  Take Quiz
Lesson 18 - Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium: Location & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 19 - Reductionism in Biology: Definition & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 20 - Serine: Definition & Structure  Take Quiz
Lesson 21 - Threonine Amino Acid: Structure & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 22 - Why is Water the Universal Solvent?  Take Quiz
Week {{::cp.getGoalWeekForTopic(6, 37)}}
Course Progress Best Score
Lesson 1 - How a Phospholipid Bilayer Is Both Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic  Take Quiz
Lesson 2 - The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane  Take Quiz
Lesson 3 - Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis  Take Quiz
Lesson 4 - Active Transport in Cells: Definition & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 5 - Endocytosis and Exocytosis Across the Cell Membrane  Take Quiz
Lesson 6 - Structure of the Nucleus: Nucleolus, Nuclear Membrane, and Nuclear Pores  Take Quiz
Lesson 7 - The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Location  Take Quiz
Lesson 8 - The Endomembrane System: Functions & Components  Take Quiz
Lesson 9 - The Cytoskeleton: Microtubules and Microfilaments  Take Quiz
Lesson 10 - Mitochondria Structure: Cristae, Matrix and Inner & Outer Membrane  Take Quiz
Lesson 11 - Chloroplast Structure: Chlorophyll, Stroma, Thylakoid, and Grana  Take Quiz
Lesson 12 - Plant Cell Structures: The Cell Wall and Central Vacuole  Take Quiz
Lesson 13 - Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells: Similarities and Differences  Take Quiz
Lesson 14 - Kingdom Protista: Definition, Characteristics & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 15 - Plasma Membrane of a Cell: Definition, Function & Structure  Take Quiz
Lesson 16 - Glycocalyx: Definition & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 17 - Homologous Chromosomes: Definition, Pairing & Separation  Take Quiz
Lesson 18 - Immune Cells: Types & Explanation  Take Quiz
Lesson 19 - Receptor: Definition & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 20 - What Are Blood Cells? - Functions & Types  Take Quiz
Lesson 21 - Do Plant Cells Have a Cell Membrane?  Take Quiz
Lesson 22 - Cell Membrane Diseases: Types & Causes  Take Quiz
Lesson 23 - Do All Cells Have a Cell Membrane?  Take Quiz
Lesson 24 - Transport Across the Cell Membrane  Take Quiz
Lesson 25 - What Does the Cell Membrane Do in a Plant Cell?  Take Quiz
Lesson 26 - What Does the Nucleus Do in a Plant Cell?  Take Quiz
Lesson 27 - What is a Cell Membrane? - Definition, Location & Facts  Take Quiz
Lesson 28 - What Is the Function of Cholesterol in the Cell Membrane?  Take Quiz
Lesson 29 - What Is the Function of the Nucleus in Eukaryotic Cells?  Take Quiz
Lesson 30 - Where Is the Nucleus Located in a Cell?  Take Quiz
Lesson 31 - Who Discovered the Cell Membrane?  Take Quiz
Lesson 32 - Why Does Water Pass Quickly Through the Cell Membrane?  Take Quiz
Lesson 33 - Why Is Cell Division Important?  Take Quiz
Lesson 34 - Why Is the Cell Membrane Important?  Take Quiz
Lesson 35 - Why Is the Cell Membrane Selectively Permeable?  Take Quiz
Week {{::cp.getGoalWeekForTopic(9, 37)}}
Course Progress Best Score
Lesson 1 - Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells  Take Quiz
Lesson 2 - Redox Reactions & Electron Carriers in Cellular Respiration: Definitions and Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 3 - Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance  Take Quiz
Lesson 4 - The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps  Take Quiz
Lesson 5 - The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps  Take Quiz
Lesson 6 - Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 7 - Chlorophyll: Absorbing Light Energy for Photosynthesis  Take Quiz
Lesson 8 - Photolysis and the Light Reactions: Definitions, Steps, Reactants & Products  Take Quiz
Lesson 9 - Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis: The Calvin-Benson Cycle  Take Quiz
Lesson 10 - Cell Growth: Phases & Factors  Take Quiz
Lesson 11 - Starch vs. Cellulose: Structure & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 12 - Starch vs. Glycogen: Structure & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 13 - Starch: Structure, Types & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 14 - Thyroglobulin & Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibodies  Take Quiz
Lesson 15 - Thyroxine: Definition & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 16 - What Is ADP in Biology?  Take Quiz
Lesson 17 - What is an Ester Linkage?  Take Quiz
Lesson 18 - What is Metabolic Waste? - Definition & Products  Take Quiz
Lesson 19 - What is Starch? - Definition, Function & Chemical Formula  Take Quiz
Lesson 20 - Organelles Involved in Protein Synthesis  Take Quiz
Week {{::cp.getGoalWeekForTopic(10, 37)}}
Course Progress Best Score
Lesson 1 - Basic Genetics: The Genome & Chromosomes  Take Quiz
Lesson 2 - How is DNA Organized into Chromosomes? - Structure & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 3 - The Cell Cycle: Definition, Phases & Sequence  Take Quiz
Lesson 4 - How is DNA Packaged? - Chromosome Condensation & Karyograms  Take Quiz
Lesson 5 - Parts of a Chromosome & Their Roles  Take Quiz
Lesson 6 - Mitotic Spindle: Definition, Formation & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 7 - Stages of Mitosis: Description & Sequence  Take Quiz
Lesson 8 - Cytokinesis: Animal Versus Plant Cells  Take Quiz
Lesson 9 - Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction: Comparison & Characteristics  Take Quiz
Lesson 10 - Meiosis: Comparison to Mitosis, Crossing Over & Process  Take Quiz
Lesson 11 - Meiosis I Stages: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I & Telophase I  Take Quiz
Lesson 12 - Meiosis II: Definition, Stages & Comparison to Meiosis I  Take Quiz
Lesson 13 - Nondisjunction & Aneuploidy: Definition & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 14 - Nondisjunction in Meiosis: Definition & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 15 - Anaphase: Definition & Concept  Take Quiz
Lesson 16 - Karyotype: Definition, Disorders & Analysis  Take Quiz
Lesson 17 - Kinetochore: Definition & Structure  Take Quiz
Lesson 18 - Telophase: Definition & Explanation  Take Quiz
Lesson 19 - What is the Human Genome Project? - Definition, Purpose & Benefits  Take Quiz
Lesson 20 - Division of a Cell Nucleus  Take Quiz
Lesson 21 - Eukaryotic Cell Division  Take Quiz
Lesson 22 - Types of Cell Division  Take Quiz
Lesson 23 - Importance of Mitotic Cell Division  Take Quiz
Lesson 24 - What Controls Cell Division?  Take Quiz
Lesson 25 - What is Cell Division?  Take Quiz
Lesson 26 - What Limits Cell Division?  Take Quiz
Week {{::cp.getGoalWeekForTopic(14, 37)}}
Course Progress Best Score
Lesson 1 - Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes  Take Quiz
Lesson 2 - Properties of Alleles  Take Quiz
Lesson 3 - Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation  Take Quiz
Lesson 4 - Application of Mendel's First Law  Take Quiz
Lesson 5 - Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment  Take Quiz
Lesson 6 - Mendel's Dihybrid Cross Example: Practice & Ratio  Take Quiz
Lesson 7 - Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance  Take Quiz
Lesson 8 - Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Traits  Take Quiz
Lesson 9 - Crossing Over & Gene Linkage: Definition, Importance & Results  Take Quiz
Lesson 10 - Human Genetics: Multifactorial Traits & Model Organisms  Take Quiz
Lesson 11 - What is Color Blindness? - Causes & Overview  Take Quiz
Lesson 12 - C. Elegans in Development  Take Quiz
Lesson 13 - Gametic Isolation: Definition & Example  Take Quiz
Lesson 14 - Genetic Manipulation: Definition, Pros & Cons  Take Quiz
Lesson 15 - Homozygous Recessive: Definition & Disorders  Take Quiz
Lesson 16 - Independent Assortment: Definition, Principle & Example  Take Quiz
Lesson 17 - Phenotypic Ratio: Definition & Overview  Take Quiz
Lesson 18 - Translocation: Definition & Types  Take Quiz
Lesson 19 - What Are Genes? - Definition, Types & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 20 - What is Polygenic Dominance?  Take Quiz
Lesson 21 - Is Degenerative Disease Hereditary?  Take Quiz
Lesson 22 - Epistasis Examples in Humans  Take Quiz
Lesson 23 - Types of Epistasis  Take Quiz
Lesson 24 - What Is the F2 Generation? - Definition & Characteristics  Take Quiz
Lesson 25 - Dominant vs Recessive Epistasis: Example & Analysis  Take Quiz
Week {{::cp.getGoalWeekForTopic(17, 37)}}
Course Progress Best Score
Lesson 1 - Bacterial Cell Morphology and Classification: Definition, Shapes & Arrangements  Take Quiz
Lesson 2 - Bacterial Cytoplasm & Cell Membrane: Structure & Components  Take Quiz
Lesson 3 - Bacterial Cell Walls: Structure, Function & Types  Take Quiz
Lesson 4 - Bacterial Structures and Their Functions  Take Quiz
Lesson 5 - Bacterial Endospores: Definition & Formation  Take Quiz
Lesson 6 - The Bacterial Genome: Structure & Organization  Take Quiz
Lesson 7 - Bacterial Plasmids: Definition, Function & Uses  Take Quiz
Lesson 8 - Bacterial Conjugation: Definition & Protocol  Take Quiz
Lesson 9 - Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process & Applications  Take Quiz
Lesson 10 - Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process & Advantages  Take Quiz
Lesson 11 - Aerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process  Take Quiz
Lesson 12 - Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process  Take Quiz
Lesson 13 - Bacterial Fermentation Process & Products  Take Quiz
Lesson 14 - Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a Model Organism or Host Cell  Take Quiz
Lesson 15 - Growth Requirements of E. coli and Auxotrophs  Take Quiz
Lesson 16 - Louis Pasteur: Experiments, Contribution & Theory  Take Quiz
Lesson 17 - Operon: Definition & Sequencing  Take Quiz
Lesson 18 - Peptidoglycan: Definition, Function & Structure  Take Quiz
Lesson 19 - Do Bacteria Cells Have DNA?  Take Quiz
Lesson 20 - Bacterial Chromosome: Definition & Structure  Take Quiz
Week {{::cp.getGoalWeekForTopic(18, 37)}}
Course Progress Best Score
Lesson 1 - What Are Viruses? - Definition, Structure & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 2 - Shapes of a Virus: Helical, Icosahedral, Prolate, Complex & Enveloped  Take Quiz
Lesson 3 - The Life Cycle of a Virus: How Viruses Live, Attack & Replicate  Take Quiz
Lesson 4 - Classification of Viruses: Viral Genome and Replication Scheme  Take Quiz
Lesson 5 - Replication of DNA Viruses  Take Quiz
Lesson 6 - Replication of RNA Viruses  Take Quiz
Lesson 7 - How Viruses Mutate: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift  Take Quiz
Lesson 8 - Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles  Take Quiz
Lesson 9 - Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion  Take Quiz
Lesson 10 - Chicken Pox Virus Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 11 - Epstein Barr Virus: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 12 - Hepatitis C Virus: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 13 - Rabies Virus: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 14 - Rubella Virus: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 15 - Smallpox Virus: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 16 - Tobacco Mosaic Virus: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 17 - Variola Virus: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 18 - West Nile Virus: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 19 - Yellow Fever Virus: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 20 - Hepatitis A Virus: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 21 - Hepatitis B Virus: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 22 - Herpes Simplex Virus: Structure and Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 23 - Molluscum Contagiosum Virus: Symptoms & Treatment  Take Quiz
Week {{::cp.getGoalWeekForTopic(21, 37)}}
Course Progress Best Score
Lesson 1 - Theories of Evolution: Lamarck vs. Darwin  Take Quiz
Lesson 2 - Evidence for Evolution: Paleontology, Biogeography, Embryology, Comparative Anatomy & Molecular Biology  Take Quiz
Lesson 3 - Rates of Evolution: Punctuated Equilibrium & Molecular Clock Hypothesis  Take Quiz
Lesson 4 - Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium I: Overview  Take Quiz
Lesson 5 - Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium II: The Equation  Take Quiz
Lesson 6 - Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium III: Evolutionary Agents  Take Quiz
Lesson 7 - Natural Selection & Adaptation: Definition, Theory & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 8 - Natural Selection: Definition, Types & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 9 - Speciation: Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation  Take Quiz
Lesson 10 - Prezygotic Reproductive Barriers & Speciation: Definition & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 11 - Postzygotic Reproductive Barriers: Definition & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 12 - Genetic Variability and Random Mutation  Take Quiz
Lesson 13 - An Example of Rapid Adaptation: The Peppered Moths  Take Quiz
Lesson 14 - Artificial Selection in Evolution  Take Quiz
Lesson 15 - The Four Forces of Evolution  Take Quiz
Lesson 16 - Evolutionary Fitness: Definition & Explanation  Take Quiz
Lesson 17 - Paul Ekman & Emotion: Face Training Study, Overview  Take Quiz
Lesson 18 - Survival of The Fittest & Herbert Spencer: Definition & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 19 - Evolutionary Relationships: Definition & Diagram  Take Quiz
Lesson 20 - Vocal Tract: Anatomy & Diagram  Take Quiz
Week {{::cp.getGoalWeekForTopic(23, 37)}}
Course Progress Best Score
Lesson 1 - Classification of Vascular, Nonvascular, Monocot & Dicot Plants  Take Quiz
Lesson 2 - Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue  Take Quiz
Lesson 3 - Apical Meristem & Primary Shoot System Growth  Take Quiz
Lesson 4 - Lateral Meristem & Secondary Shoot System Growth  Take Quiz
Lesson 5 - Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers  Take Quiz
Lesson 6 - Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder  Take Quiz
Lesson 7 - Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots  Take Quiz
Lesson 8 - Nitrogen Fixation: Significance to Plants and Humans  Take Quiz
Lesson 9 - Xylem: The Effect of Transpiration and Cohesion on Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 10 - Phloem: The Pressure Flow Hypothesis of Food Movement  Take Quiz
Lesson 11 - Flowers: Structure and Function of Male & Female Components  Take Quiz
Lesson 12 - Methods of Pollination and Flower-Pollinator Relationships  Take Quiz
Lesson 13 - Central Vacuole in Plant Cells: Definition & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 14 - What Is Primary Succession? - Definition & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 15 - Anther of a Flower: Function & Definition  Take Quiz
Lesson 16 - Auxins in Plants: Definition & Functions  Take Quiz
Lesson 17 - Bryophytes: Definition, Types, Characteristics & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 18 - Epicotyl: Definition & Function  Take Quiz
Lesson 19 - Flower Sepals: Function & Definition  Take Quiz
Lesson 20 - Gravitropism: Definition & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 21 - Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Phototrophs: Definition and Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 22 - Phylum Rhodophyta: Definition and Characteristics  Take Quiz
Lesson 23 - Plant Stem: Function, Types & Parts  Take Quiz
Lesson 24 - Primary Growth of Plants  Take Quiz
Lesson 25 - Prokaryotic Algae Cells: Function, Definition & Features  Take Quiz
Lesson 26 - What Are Mycorrhizae? - Definition, Function & Products  Take Quiz
Lesson 27 - Xerophytes: Definition, Adaptation & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 28 - Cryptogams: Classification & Characteristics  Take Quiz
Week {{::cp.getGoalWeekForTopic(24, 37)}}
Week {{::cp.getGoalWeekForTopic(26, 37)}}
Course Progress Best Score
Lesson 1 - Animal Body Plans: Classifications and Features  Take Quiz
Lesson 2 - Parazoa: Definition and Characteristics  Take Quiz
Lesson 3 - Radiata: Definition and Characteristics  Take Quiz
Lesson 4 - Protostomes: Definition and Characteristics  Take Quiz
Lesson 5 - Deuterostomes: Definition and Characteristics  Take Quiz
Lesson 6 - Cnidarians: Types & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 7 - Ascaris Parasitic Worms: Phylum & Classification  Take Quiz
Lesson 8 - Ascaris Worms: Anatomy & Digestive Systems  Take Quiz
Lesson 9 - Ascaris Worms: Larvae & Reproduction  Take Quiz
Lesson 10 - Ascaris Worms: Life Cycle & Pictures  Take Quiz
Lesson 11 - Comparing Male & Female Ascaris Worms  Take Quiz
Lesson 12 - Metamerism in Annelids  Take Quiz
Lesson 13 - Paramecium: Definition, Characteristics & Parts  Take Quiz
Lesson 14 - Phylum Annelida Circulatory & Nervous Systems  Take Quiz
Lesson 15 - Phylum Annelida Digestive & Respiratory Systems  Take Quiz
Lesson 16 - Phylum Annelida: Characteristics, Classes & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 17 - Phylum Porifera Reproduction  Take Quiz
Lesson 18 - Phylum Porifera: Definition, Characteristics & Examples  Take Quiz
Lesson 19 - Porifera Digestive System & Excretion  Take Quiz
Lesson 20 - The Porifera Life Cycle  Take Quiz
Lesson 21 - Porifera Respiration & Respiratory System  Take Quiz
Lesson 22 - Porifera: Body Plan, Symmetry & Skeleton  Take Quiz
Lesson 23 - Porifera: Species & Types  Take Quiz
Lesson 24 - Protozoa: Types & Reproduction  Take Quiz
Lesson 25 - Reproduction of Planaria Worms  Take Quiz
Lesson 26 - Tapeworms in Humans: Symptoms & Treatment  Take Quiz
Lesson 27 - The Dumbo Octopus: Facts & Anatomy  Take Quiz
Lesson 28 - The Mimic, Blue Ring & Blanket Octopuses  Take Quiz
Lesson 29 - What are Roundworms? - Types, Examples & Characteristics  Take Quiz
Lesson 30 - Pentaradial Symmetry: Definition & Types  Take Quiz
Lesson 31 - Chordata Digestive System  Take Quiz
Lesson 32 - Chordata Excretory System  Take Quiz
Lesson 33 - Chordata Nervous System  Take Quiz
Lesson 34 - Examples of Invertebrate Chordates  Take Quiz
Lesson 35 - Bivalve: Anatomy & Reproduction  Take Quiz
Lesson 36 - What is Cephalization? - Definition & Advantage  Take Quiz
Lesson 37 - Echinoderm Structure: Skeleton & Symmetry  Take Quiz
Week {{::cp.getGoalWeekForTopic(28, 37)}}