AP European History: Exam Prep Final Exam

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The British steamer Trent left the coast of the Crimea on the 25th October, and arrived on the following day at Varna, whence a dispatch, sent for transmission by telegraph to the nearest station, reached the French and English Governments, on November 1. Up to the time of the Trent's departure the siege and bombardment were going on with regularity and success. So heavy had been the fire of the besieging batteries, and so terrible was the loss of life in the town of Sebastopol, that the air was reported to be tainted by the number of unburned dead. Guns had been brought to bear upon the gates, and Admiral Nachimoff had been killed by the fragment of a shell.

New York Times, 17 November 1854

Question 1 1. Which of the following nineteenth-century events is this passage most closely related to?

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The British steamer Trent left the coast of the Crimea on the 25th October, and arrived on the following day at Varna, whence a dispatch, sent for transmission by telegraph to the nearest station, reached the French and English Governments, on November 1. Up to the time of the Trent's departure the siege and bombardment were going on with regularity and success. So heavy had been the fire of the besieging batteries, and so terrible was the loss of life in the town of Sebastopol, that the air was reported to be tainted by the number of unburned dead. Guns had been brought to bear upon the gates, and Admiral Nachimoff had been killed by the fragment of a shell.

New York Times, 17 November 1854

Question 2 2. Which of the following European powers conducted the siege referred to in this passage?

Use this material to answer questions #1 through #3

The British steamer Trent left the coast of the Crimea on the 25th October, and arrived on the following day at Varna, whence a dispatch, sent for transmission by telegraph to the nearest station, reached the French and English Governments, on November 1. Up to the time of the Trent's departure the siege and bombardment were going on with regularity and success. So heavy had been the fire of the besieging batteries, and so terrible was the loss of life in the town of Sebastopol, that the air was reported to be tainted by the number of unburned dead. Guns had been brought to bear upon the gates, and Admiral Nachimoff had been killed by the fragment of a shell.

New York Times, 17 November 1854

Question 3 3. The conflict referred to in this passage was lost due to:

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Michelangelo_Creation_of_Adam

Question 4 4. This painting by Michelangelo best exemplifies which of the following Renaissance ideals?

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Michelangelo_Creation_of_Adam

Question 5 5. Some scholars have interpreted that the shape behind God in this painting resembles the anatomy of the human brain. This interpretation is supported by which of the following trends in early modern thought?

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Michelangelo_Creation_of_Adam

Question 6 6. How does the depiction of God in this painting differ from Medieval images of God?

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'Wherefore the prudent organizer of a state whose intention it is to govern not in his own interests but for the common good, and not in the interest of his successors but for the sake of that fatherland which is common to all, should contrive to be alone in his authority. Nor will any reasonable man blame him for taking any action, however extraordinary, which may be of service in the organizing of a kingdom or the constituting of a republic. It is a sound maxim that reprehensible actions may be justified by their effects, and that when the effect is good, as it was in the case of Romulus, it always justifies the action. For it is the man who uses violence to spoil things, not the man who uses it to mend them, that is blameworthy.'

Machiavelli, Excerpt from 'The Discourses'

Question 7 7. Which of the following principles of Machiavellian political thought is being highlighted in this excerpt from Machiavelli's 'The Discourses'?

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'Wherefore the prudent organizer of a state whose intention it is to govern not in his own interests but for the common good, and not in the interest of his successors but for the sake of that fatherland which is common to all, should contrive to be alone in his authority. Nor will any reasonable man blame him for taking any action, however extraordinary, which may be of service in the organizing of a kingdom or the constituting of a republic. It is a sound maxim that reprehensible actions may be justified by their effects, and that when the effect is good, as it was in the case of Romulus, it always justifies the action. For it is the man who uses violence to spoil things, not the man who uses it to mend them, that is blameworthy.'

Machiavelli, Excerpt from 'The Discourses'

Question 8 8. Which of the following political trends is most closely related to the content of this passage?

Use this material to answer questions #7 through #10

'Wherefore the prudent organizer of a state whose intention it is to govern not in his own interests but for the common good, and not in the interest of his successors but for the sake of that fatherland which is common to all, should contrive to be alone in his authority. Nor will any reasonable man blame him for taking any action, however extraordinary, which may be of service in the organizing of a kingdom or the constituting of a republic. It is a sound maxim that reprehensible actions may be justified by their effects, and that when the effect is good, as it was in the case of Romulus, it always justifies the action. For it is the man who uses violence to spoil things, not the man who uses it to mend them, that is blameworthy.'

Machiavelli, Excerpt from 'The Discourses'

Question 9 9. Based on the passage, which of Machiavelli's political ideas most closely relates to Humanism?

Use this material to answer questions #7 through #10

'Wherefore the prudent organizer of a state whose intention it is to govern not in his own interests but for the common good, and not in the interest of his successors but for the sake of that fatherland which is common to all, should contrive to be alone in his authority. Nor will any reasonable man blame him for taking any action, however extraordinary, which may be of service in the organizing of a kingdom or the constituting of a republic. It is a sound maxim that reprehensible actions may be justified by their effects, and that when the effect is good, as it was in the case of Romulus, it always justifies the action. For it is the man who uses violence to spoil things, not the man who uses it to mend them, that is blameworthy.'

Machiavelli, Excerpt from 'The Discourses'

Question 10 10. The ideas described in this passage were most likely inspired by which of the following trends in sixteenth-century Europe?

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From all I have learned of the state of the enemy's force at present in the Peninsula, I am of opinion that unless the Spanish armies should meet with misfortune, the enemy could not make an attack upon Portugal; and that if events in Spain should enable the enemy to make such an attack, the force at present in Portugal is able to defend that country. If in consequence of the peace in Germany the enemy's army in the Peninsula should be reinforced, it is obvious that the enemy will acquire the means of attacking Portugal... in this case I conceive that till Spain shall have been conquered... the enemy will find it difficult, if not impossible, to obtain possession of Portugal.

Wellington's letter to Lord Liverpool on 14 November 1809.

Question 11 11. In this letter written on November 14th 1809, who is the writer referring to when he states 'the enemy'?

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From all I have learned of the state of the enemy's force at present in the Peninsula, I am of opinion that unless the Spanish armies should meet with misfortune, the enemy could not make an attack upon Portugal; and that if events in Spain should enable the enemy to make such an attack, the force at present in Portugal is able to defend that country. If in consequence of the peace in Germany the enemy's army in the Peninsula should be reinforced, it is obvious that the enemy will acquire the means of attacking Portugal... in this case I conceive that till Spain shall have been conquered... the enemy will find it difficult, if not impossible, to obtain possession of Portugal.

Wellington's letter to Lord Liverpool on 14 November 1809.

Question 12 12. What is the writer most likely referring to when he mentions the 'peace in Germany'?

Use this material to answer questions #11 through #13

From all I have learned of the state of the enemy's force at present in the Peninsula, I am of opinion that unless the Spanish armies should meet with misfortune, the enemy could not make an attack upon Portugal; and that if events in Spain should enable the enemy to make such an attack, the force at present in Portugal is able to defend that country. If in consequence of the peace in Germany the enemy's army in the Peninsula should be reinforced, it is obvious that the enemy will acquire the means of attacking Portugal... in this case I conceive that till Spain shall have been conquered... the enemy will find it difficult, if not impossible, to obtain possession of Portugal.

Wellington's letter to Lord Liverpool on 14 November 1809.

Question 13 13. What is the writer most likely referring to when he mentions the 'force at present in Portugal'?

Use this material to answer questions #14 through #15

Partition_Poland

Question 14 14. This image is an allegory of the First Partition of Poland. Apart from Polish king Stanislaw Poniatowski, the image most likely includes the rulers of which of the following monarchies?

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Partition_Poland

Question 15 15. Why do you think that the crown is about to fall off King Poniatowski's head in this image?

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AP European History: Exam Prep Final Free Practice Test Instructions

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