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AP World History: Exam Prep Final Exam

Exam Instructions:

Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. You can skip questions if you would like and come back to them later with the yellow "Go To First Skipped Question" button. When you have completed the practice exam, a green submit button will appear. Click it to see your results. Good luck!

Page 1

Use this material to answer questions #1 through #3

''And when We made the House (at Makka) a resort for mankind and sanctuary, (saying): Take as your place of worship the place where Abraham stood (to pray). And We imposed a duty upon Abraham and Ishmael, (saying): Purify My house for those who go around and those who meditate therein and those who bow down and prostrate themselves (in worship).


And when Abraham prayed: My Lord! Make this a region of security and bestow upon its people fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day, He answered: As for him who disbelieveth, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the doom of Fire - a hapless journey's end!''


-Pickthall translation of Qu'ran Chapter 2, verse 126-27.

Question 1 1. What is the sacred text of the Islam?

Use this material to answer questions #1 through #3

''And when We made the House (at Makka) a resort for mankind and sanctuary, (saying): Take as your place of worship the place where Abraham stood (to pray). And We imposed a duty upon Abraham and Ishmael, (saying): Purify My house for those who go around and those who meditate therein and those who bow down and prostrate themselves (in worship).


And when Abraham prayed: My Lord! Make this a region of security and bestow upon its people fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day, He answered: As for him who disbelieveth, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the doom of Fire - a hapless journey's end!''


-Pickthall translation of Qu'ran Chapter 2, verse 126-27.

Question 2 2. Islamic tradition says Mohammed had his first vision from Allah in _____. These visions were later written down in the Qur'an, as excerpted above.

Use this material to answer questions #1 through #3

''And when We made the House (at Makka) a resort for mankind and sanctuary, (saying): Take as your place of worship the place where Abraham stood (to pray). And We imposed a duty upon Abraham and Ishmael, (saying): Purify My house for those who go around and those who meditate therein and those who bow down and prostrate themselves (in worship).


And when Abraham prayed: My Lord! Make this a region of security and bestow upon its people fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day, He answered: As for him who disbelieveth, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the doom of Fire - a hapless journey's end!''


-Pickthall translation of Qu'ran Chapter 2, verse 126-27.

Question 3 3. The Islamic prophet Mohammed was born in what important for Islam city?

Use this material to answer questions #4 through #6

''Friday October 12


The vessels were hove to, waiting for daylight; and on Friday they arrived at a small island of the Lucayos, called, in the language of the Indians, Guanahani. Presently they saw naked people. The Admiral went on shore in the armed boat, and Martin Alonso Pinzon, and Vicente Yanez, his brother, who was captain of the Niña. The Admiral took the royal standard, and the captains went with two banners of the green cross, which the Admiral took in all the ships as a sign, with an F and a Y and a crown over each letter, one on one side of the cross and the other on the other.

Having landed, they saw trees very green, and much water, and fruits of diverse kinds. The Admiral called to the two captains, and to the others who leaped on shore, and to Rodrigo Escovedo, secretary of the whole fleet, and to Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia, and said that they should bear faithful testimony that he, in presence of all, had taken, as he now took, possession of the said island for the King and for the Queen his Lords, making the declarations that are required, as is now largely set forth in the testimonies which were then made in writing.''


-Bartolome de las Casas, 1530s, biographer of Christopher Columbus, sharing entries from Columbus' journal (now lost)

Question 4 4. Although Christopher Columbus was Italian, his famous voyage was flown under the flag of which country?

Use this material to answer questions #4 through #6

''Friday October 12


The vessels were hove to, waiting for daylight; and on Friday they arrived at a small island of the Lucayos, called, in the language of the Indians, Guanahani. Presently they saw naked people. The Admiral went on shore in the armed boat, and Martin Alonso Pinzon, and Vicente Yanez, his brother, who was captain of the Niña. The Admiral took the royal standard, and the captains went with two banners of the green cross, which the Admiral took in all the ships as a sign, with an F and a Y and a crown over each letter, one on one side of the cross and the other on the other.

Having landed, they saw trees very green, and much water, and fruits of diverse kinds. The Admiral called to the two captains, and to the others who leaped on shore, and to Rodrigo Escovedo, secretary of the whole fleet, and to Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia, and said that they should bear faithful testimony that he, in presence of all, had taken, as he now took, possession of the said island for the King and for the Queen his Lords, making the declarations that are required, as is now largely set forth in the testimonies which were then made in writing.''


-Bartolome de las Casas, 1530s, biographer of Christopher Columbus, sharing entries from Columbus' journal (now lost)

Question 5 5. What was the purpose of Columbus' voyage?

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Use this material to answer questions #4 through #6

''Friday October 12


The vessels were hove to, waiting for daylight; and on Friday they arrived at a small island of the Lucayos, called, in the language of the Indians, Guanahani. Presently they saw naked people. The Admiral went on shore in the armed boat, and Martin Alonso Pinzon, and Vicente Yanez, his brother, who was captain of the Niña. The Admiral took the royal standard, and the captains went with two banners of the green cross, which the Admiral took in all the ships as a sign, with an F and a Y and a crown over each letter, one on one side of the cross and the other on the other.

Having landed, they saw trees very green, and much water, and fruits of diverse kinds. The Admiral called to the two captains, and to the others who leaped on shore, and to Rodrigo Escovedo, secretary of the whole fleet, and to Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia, and said that they should bear faithful testimony that he, in presence of all, had taken, as he now took, possession of the said island for the King and for the Queen his Lords, making the declarations that are required, as is now largely set forth in the testimonies which were then made in writing.''


-Bartolome de las Casas, 1530s, biographer of Christopher Columbus, sharing entries from Columbus' journal (now lost)

Question 6 6. Columbus' voyages signaled the beginning of the age of _____.

Use this material to answer questions #7 through #8

''The wood-carver can fashion whatever he will. Yet his products are but toys of the moment, to be glanced at in jest, not fashioned according to any precept or law. When times change, the carver too will change his style and make new trifles to hit the fancy of the passing day. But there is another kind of artist, who sets more soberly about his work, striving to give real beauty to the things which men actually use and to give to them the shape which tradition has ordained. This maker of real things must not for a moment be confused with the maker of idle toys.''


-Murasaki Shikibu, The Tale of Genji, written about 1008

Question 7 7. The Tale of Genji was written during the time of which Japanese ruling family?

Use this material to answer questions #7 through #8

''The wood-carver can fashion whatever he will. Yet his products are but toys of the moment, to be glanced at in jest, not fashioned according to any precept or law. When times change, the carver too will change his style and make new trifles to hit the fancy of the passing day. But there is another kind of artist, who sets more soberly about his work, striving to give real beauty to the things which men actually use and to give to them the shape which tradition has ordained. This maker of real things must not for a moment be confused with the maker of idle toys.''


-Murasaki Shikibu, The Tale of Genji, written about 1008

Question 8 8. The Tale of Genji was written while Japan was still pre-feudal or classical, meaning the emperor still had the ruling power. What year did feudalism really begin in Japan, meaning the country was ruled by bands of military warriors?

Use this material to answer questions #9 through #12

''The Senate rose in respect for his position when they saw him entering. Those who were to have part in the plot stood near him. Right next to him went Tillius Cimber, whose brother had been exiled by Caesar. Under pretext of a humble request on behalf of this brother, Cimber approached and grasped the mantle of his toga, seeming to want to make a more positive move with his hands upon Caesar. Caesar wanted to get up and use his hands, but was prevented by Cimber and became exceedingly annoyed.


That was the moment for the men to set to work. All quickly unsheathed their daggers and rushed at him. First Servilius Casca struck him with the point of the blade on the left shoulder a little above the collar-bone. He had been aiming for that, but in the excitement he missed. Caesar rose to defend himself, and in the uproar Casca shouted out in Greek to his brother. The latter heard him and drove his sword into the ribs. After a moment, Cassius made a slash at his face, and Decimus Brutus pierced him in the side. While Cassius Longinus was trying to give him another blow he missed and struck Marcus Brutus on the hand. Minucius also hit out at Caesar and hit Rubrius in the thigh. They were just like men doing battle against him.


Under the mass of wounds, he fell at the foot of Pompey's statue. Everyone wanted to seem to have had some part in the murder, and there was not one of them who failed to strike his body as it lay there, until, wounded thirty-five times, he breathed his last''.


-Nicolaus of Damascus, written after Julius Caesar's Death in 44 BC

Question 9 9. Who was involved in a coup against Julius Caesar?

Use this material to answer questions #9 through #12

''The Senate rose in respect for his position when they saw him entering. Those who were to have part in the plot stood near him. Right next to him went Tillius Cimber, whose brother had been exiled by Caesar. Under pretext of a humble request on behalf of this brother, Cimber approached and grasped the mantle of his toga, seeming to want to make a more positive move with his hands upon Caesar. Caesar wanted to get up and use his hands, but was prevented by Cimber and became exceedingly annoyed.


That was the moment for the men to set to work. All quickly unsheathed their daggers and rushed at him. First Servilius Casca struck him with the point of the blade on the left shoulder a little above the collar-bone. He had been aiming for that, but in the excitement he missed. Caesar rose to defend himself, and in the uproar Casca shouted out in Greek to his brother. The latter heard him and drove his sword into the ribs. After a moment, Cassius made a slash at his face, and Decimus Brutus pierced him in the side. While Cassius Longinus was trying to give him another blow he missed and struck Marcus Brutus on the hand. Minucius also hit out at Caesar and hit Rubrius in the thigh. They were just like men doing battle against him.


Under the mass of wounds, he fell at the foot of Pompey's statue. Everyone wanted to seem to have had some part in the murder, and there was not one of them who failed to strike his body as it lay there, until, wounded thirty-five times, he breathed his last''.


-Nicolaus of Damascus, written after Julius Caesar's Death in 44 BC

Question 10 10. Although Nicolaus of Damascus' account of Julius Caesar's assassination states he was wounded 35 times, how many times was Julius Caesar actually stabbed?

Page 3

Use this material to answer questions #9 through #12

''The Senate rose in respect for his position when they saw him entering. Those who were to have part in the plot stood near him. Right next to him went Tillius Cimber, whose brother had been exiled by Caesar. Under pretext of a humble request on behalf of this brother, Cimber approached and grasped the mantle of his toga, seeming to want to make a more positive move with his hands upon Caesar. Caesar wanted to get up and use his hands, but was prevented by Cimber and became exceedingly annoyed.


That was the moment for the men to set to work. All quickly unsheathed their daggers and rushed at him. First Servilius Casca struck him with the point of the blade on the left shoulder a little above the collar-bone. He had been aiming for that, but in the excitement he missed. Caesar rose to defend himself, and in the uproar Casca shouted out in Greek to his brother. The latter heard him and drove his sword into the ribs. After a moment, Cassius made a slash at his face, and Decimus Brutus pierced him in the side. While Cassius Longinus was trying to give him another blow he missed and struck Marcus Brutus on the hand. Minucius also hit out at Caesar and hit Rubrius in the thigh. They were just like men doing battle against him.


Under the mass of wounds, he fell at the foot of Pompey's statue. Everyone wanted to seem to have had some part in the murder, and there was not one of them who failed to strike his body as it lay there, until, wounded thirty-five times, he breathed his last''.


-Nicolaus of Damascus, written after Julius Caesar's Death in 44 BC

Question 11 11. Who was Julius Caesar in a triumvirate with? Who did he work with to oversee the people of Rome?

Use this material to answer questions #9 through #12

''The Senate rose in respect for his position when they saw him entering. Those who were to have part in the plot stood near him. Right next to him went Tillius Cimber, whose brother had been exiled by Caesar. Under pretext of a humble request on behalf of this brother, Cimber approached and grasped the mantle of his toga, seeming to want to make a more positive move with his hands upon Caesar. Caesar wanted to get up and use his hands, but was prevented by Cimber and became exceedingly annoyed.


That was the moment for the men to set to work. All quickly unsheathed their daggers and rushed at him. First Servilius Casca struck him with the point of the blade on the left shoulder a little above the collar-bone. He had been aiming for that, but in the excitement he missed. Caesar rose to defend himself, and in the uproar Casca shouted out in Greek to his brother. The latter heard him and drove his sword into the ribs. After a moment, Cassius made a slash at his face, and Decimus Brutus pierced him in the side. While Cassius Longinus was trying to give him another blow he missed and struck Marcus Brutus on the hand. Minucius also hit out at Caesar and hit Rubrius in the thigh. They were just like men doing battle against him.


Under the mass of wounds, he fell at the foot of Pompey's statue. Everyone wanted to seem to have had some part in the murder, and there was not one of them who failed to strike his body as it lay there, until, wounded thirty-five times, he breathed his last''.


-Nicolaus of Damascus, written after Julius Caesar's Death in 44 BC

Question 12 12. With the deaths of his first triumvirate allies, Caesar found himself on the path to being in charge of all Rome. When was Caesar named dictator for life?

Use this material to answer questions #13 through #14

''Cautious, careful people, always casting about to preserve their reputation and social standing, never can bring about a reform. Those who are really in earnest must be willing to be anything or nothing in the world's estimation, and publicly and privately, in season and out, avow their sympathy with despised and persecuted ideas and their advocates, and bear the consequences...''


-Susan B. Anthony, On the Campaign for Divorce Law Reform, 1860

Question 13 13. Susan B. Anthony was part of the first wave of feminism. When do historians date the first wave of feminism?

Use this material to answer questions #13 through #14

''Cautious, careful people, always casting about to preserve their reputation and social standing, never can bring about a reform. Those who are really in earnest must be willing to be anything or nothing in the world's estimation, and publicly and privately, in season and out, avow their sympathy with despised and persecuted ideas and their advocates, and bear the consequences...''


-Susan B. Anthony, On the Campaign for Divorce Law Reform, 1860

Question 14 14. Susan B. Anthony was one of the leading figures in the first wave of feminism. Together with _____, they introduced the 19th Amendment, which gave women the right to vote in 1920.

Use this material to answer questions #15 through #16

nyc

-New York City skyline with Twin Towers on fire on September 11, 2001

Question 15 15. Who perpetrated the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001?

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Use this material to answer questions #15 through #16

nyc

-New York City skyline with Twin Towers on fire on September 11, 2001

Question 16 16. When did al-Qaeda, whose members attacked America on September 11, 2001, form?

Use this material to answer questions #17 through #19

skara brae

Question 17 17. Skara Brae, located in Scotland, is Europe's most complete Neolithic settlement. What building material did Neolithic people use to build their houses, as shown in the photograph?

Use this material to answer questions #17 through #19

skara brae

Question 18 18. What were some of the items used by the Neolithic people for food storage?

Use this material to answer questions #17 through #19

skara brae

Question 19 19. As people began to settle in villages, this marked the beginning of the Neolithic _____, where people began to live in houses and villages, like in Skara Brae, as shown in the photograph.

Use this material to answer questions #20 through #21

mona lisa

- Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, painted from 1503-19

Question 20 20. The time of Renaissance art was a time where art evolved from primarily _____ art to focusing more on the human form, like in Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa.

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Use this material to answer questions #20 through #21

mona lisa

- Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, painted from 1503-19

Question 21 21. Da Vinci's Mona Lisa is an example of the influence of _____ in Renaissance art, where works became centered around the human individual and Earthly experience rather than the heavenly realms.

Use this material to answer questions #22 through #23

''The symptoms were not the same as in the East, where a gush of blood from the nose was the plain sign of inevitable death; but it began both in men and women with certain swellings in the groin or under the armpit. They grew to the size of a small apple or an egg, more or less, and were vulgarly called tumours. In a short space of time these tumours spread from the two parts named all over the body. Soon after this the symptoms changed and black or purple spots appeared on the arms or thighs or any other part of the body, sometimes a few large ones, sometimes many little ones. These spots were a certain sign of death, just as the original tumour had been and still remained.

No doctor's advice, no medicine could overcome or alleviate this disease, An enormous number of ignorant men and women set up as doctors in addition to those who were trained. Either the disease was such that no treatment was possible or the doctors were so ignorant that they did not know what caused it, and consequently could not administer the proper remedy. In any case very few recovered; most people died within about three days of the appearance of the tumours described above, most of them without any fever or other symptoms.

The violence of this disease was such that the sick communicated it to the healthy who came near them, just as a fire catches anything dry or oily near it. And it even went further. To speak to or go near the sick brought infection and a common death to the living; and moreover, to touch the clothes or anything else the sick had touched or worn gave the disease to the person touching.''

-Giovanni Boccaccio, Introduction to The Decameron, written about 1353

Question 22 22. What pandemic is Giovanni Boccaccio describing, which occurred throughout Europe in the 1340s-1350s?

Use this material to answer questions #22 through #23

''The symptoms were not the same as in the East, where a gush of blood from the nose was the plain sign of inevitable death; but it began both in men and women with certain swellings in the groin or under the armpit. They grew to the size of a small apple or an egg, more or less, and were vulgarly called tumours. In a short space of time these tumours spread from the two parts named all over the body. Soon after this the symptoms changed and black or purple spots appeared on the arms or thighs or any other part of the body, sometimes a few large ones, sometimes many little ones. These spots were a certain sign of death, just as the original tumour had been and still remained.

No doctor's advice, no medicine could overcome or alleviate this disease, An enormous number of ignorant men and women set up as doctors in addition to those who were trained. Either the disease was such that no treatment was possible or the doctors were so ignorant that they did not know what caused it, and consequently could not administer the proper remedy. In any case very few recovered; most people died within about three days of the appearance of the tumours described above, most of them without any fever or other symptoms.

The violence of this disease was such that the sick communicated it to the healthy who came near them, just as a fire catches anything dry or oily near it. And it even went further. To speak to or go near the sick brought infection and a common death to the living; and moreover, to touch the clothes or anything else the sick had touched or worn gave the disease to the person touching.''

-Giovanni Boccaccio, Introduction to The Decameron, written about 1353

Question 23 23. The Bubonic Plague described in Giovanni Boccaccio's account killed many people in the 1340s-1350s. What is the estimated number of how many people eventually died from the illness?

Use this material to answer questions #24 through #25

''As the car quickly reversed, a thin stream of blood spurted from His Highness's mouth onto my right check. As I was pulling out my handkerchief to wipe the blood away from his mouth, the Duchess cried out to him,

'In Heaven's name, what has happened to you?'

At that she slid off the seat and lay on the floor of the car, with her face between his knees.

I had no idea that she too was hit and thought she had simply fainted with fright. Then I heard His Imperial Highness say,

'Sopherl, Sopherl, don't die. Stay alive for the children!'

At that, I seized the Archduke by the collar of his uniform, to stop his head dropping forward and asked him if he was in great pain. He answered me quite distinctly,

'It's nothing!'

His face began to twist somewhat but he went on repeating, six or seven times, ever more faintly as he gradually lost consciousness,

'It's nothing!'

Then, after a short pause, there was a violent choking sound caused by the bleeding. It was stopped as we reached the Konak.''

-Count Franz von Harrach, bodyguard for Archduke Ferdinand, June 1914

Question 24 24. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1916 gave Austria-Hungary the excuse they were looking for to invade which country?

Use this material to answer questions #24 through #25

''As the car quickly reversed, a thin stream of blood spurted from His Highness's mouth onto my right check. As I was pulling out my handkerchief to wipe the blood away from his mouth, the Duchess cried out to him,

'In Heaven's name, what has happened to you?'

At that she slid off the seat and lay on the floor of the car, with her face between his knees.

I had no idea that she too was hit and thought she had simply fainted with fright. Then I heard His Imperial Highness say,

'Sopherl, Sopherl, don't die. Stay alive for the children!'

At that, I seized the Archduke by the collar of his uniform, to stop his head dropping forward and asked him if he was in great pain. He answered me quite distinctly,

'It's nothing!'

His face began to twist somewhat but he went on repeating, six or seven times, ever more faintly as he gradually lost consciousness,

'It's nothing!'

Then, after a short pause, there was a violent choking sound caused by the bleeding. It was stopped as we reached the Konak.''

-Count Franz von Harrach, bodyguard for Archduke Ferdinand, June 1914

Question 25 25. Austria-Hungary, where Archduke Franz Ferdinand was from, was in an alliance with which other two countries?

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Use this material to answer questions #26 through #29

''For so long as a guardian has guardianship of such land, he shall maintain the houses, parks, fish preserves, ponds, mills, and everything else pertaining to it, from the revenues of the land itself. When the heir comes of age, he shall restore the whole land to him, stocked with plough teams and such implements of husbandry as the season demands and the revenues from the land can reasonably bear.''


-Excerpt from the English translation of the Magna Carta, first written in 1215

Question 26 26. The above passage is an excerpt from the Magna Carta. Written in 1215, it restricted the powers of which rulers?

Use this material to answer questions #26 through #29

''For so long as a guardian has guardianship of such land, he shall maintain the houses, parks, fish preserves, ponds, mills, and everything else pertaining to it, from the revenues of the land itself. When the heir comes of age, he shall restore the whole land to him, stocked with plough teams and such implements of husbandry as the season demands and the revenues from the land can reasonably bear.''


-Excerpt from the English translation of the Magna Carta, first written in 1215

Question 27 27. The Magna Carta, in addition to outlining the property rights of barons, also required the king to seek the approval of barons before doing what?

Use this material to answer questions #26 through #29

''For so long as a guardian has guardianship of such land, he shall maintain the houses, parks, fish preserves, ponds, mills, and everything else pertaining to it, from the revenues of the land itself. When the heir comes of age, he shall restore the whole land to him, stocked with plough teams and such implements of husbandry as the season demands and the revenues from the land can reasonably bear.''


-Excerpt from the English translation of the Magna Carta, first written in 1215

Question 28 28. What language was the Magna Carta written in?

Use this material to answer questions #26 through #29

''For so long as a guardian has guardianship of such land, he shall maintain the houses, parks, fish preserves, ponds, mills, and everything else pertaining to it, from the revenues of the land itself. When the heir comes of age, he shall restore the whole land to him, stocked with plough teams and such implements of husbandry as the season demands and the revenues from the land can reasonably bear.''


-Excerpt from the English translation of the Magna Carta, first written in 1215

Question 29 29. In addition to his troubles with the barons which resulted in the writing of the Magna Carta, King John also got in trouble with which pope?

Use this material to answer questions #30 through #32

steam

Diagram of James Watt's Steam Engine, invented around 1775

Question 30 30. James Watt's steam engine created a separate _____ for cooling water, allowing the cylinder to remain hot.

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Use this material to answer questions #30 through #32

steam

Diagram of James Watt's Steam Engine, invented around 1775

Question 31 31. What were James Watt's engines powered by?

Use this material to answer questions #30 through #32

steam

Diagram of James Watt's Steam Engine, invented around 1775

Question 32 32. Since Watt's steam engine wasn't powered by water, this allowed factory owners to choose what for their factories?

Use this material to answer questions #33 through #35

''In considering what the situation of science is, it may be helpful to think a little of what people said and felt of their motives in coming into this job. One always has to worry that what people say of their motives is not adequate. Many people said different things, and most of them, I think, had some validity. There was in the first place the great concern that our enemy might develop these weapons before we did, and the feeling -- at least, in the early days, the very strong feeling -- that without atomic weapons it might be very difficult, it might be an impossible, it might be an incredibly long thing to win the war. These things wore off a little as it became clear that the war would be won in any case. Some people, I think, were motivated by curiosity, and rightly so; and some by a sense of adventure, and rightly so. Others had more political arguments and said,


'Well, we know that atomic weapons are in principle possible, and it is not right that the threat of their unrealized possibility should hang over the world. It is right that the world should know what can be done in their field and deal with it.'


And the people added to that that it was a time when all over the world men would be particularly ripe and open for dealing with this problem because of the immediacy of the evils of war, because of the universal cry from everyone that one could not go through this thing again, even a war without atomic bombs. And there was finally, and I think rightly, the feeling that there was probably no place in the world where the development of atomic weapons would have a better chance of leading to a reasonable solution, and a smaller chance of leading to disaster, than within the United States. I believe all these things that people said are true, and I think I said them all myself at one time or another.''


-J. Robert Oppenheimer, November 1945, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Question 33 33. J. Robert Oppenheimer is referring to what secret government project which developed the atomic bomb?

Use this material to answer questions #33 through #35

''In considering what the situation of science is, it may be helpful to think a little of what people said and felt of their motives in coming into this job. One always has to worry that what people say of their motives is not adequate. Many people said different things, and most of them, I think, had some validity. There was in the first place the great concern that our enemy might develop these weapons before we did, and the feeling -- at least, in the early days, the very strong feeling -- that without atomic weapons it might be very difficult, it might be an impossible, it might be an incredibly long thing to win the war. These things wore off a little as it became clear that the war would be won in any case. Some people, I think, were motivated by curiosity, and rightly so; and some by a sense of adventure, and rightly so. Others had more political arguments and said,


'Well, we know that atomic weapons are in principle possible, and it is not right that the threat of their unrealized possibility should hang over the world. It is right that the world should know what can be done in their field and deal with it.'


And the people added to that that it was a time when all over the world men would be particularly ripe and open for dealing with this problem because of the immediacy of the evils of war, because of the universal cry from everyone that one could not go through this thing again, even a war without atomic bombs. And there was finally, and I think rightly, the feeling that there was probably no place in the world where the development of atomic weapons would have a better chance of leading to a reasonable solution, and a smaller chance of leading to disaster, than within the United States. I believe all these things that people said are true, and I think I said them all myself at one time or another.''


-J. Robert Oppenheimer, November 1945, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Question 34 34. How many people were employed throughout the US to develop the atomic bomb?

Use this material to answer questions #33 through #35

''In considering what the situation of science is, it may be helpful to think a little of what people said and felt of their motives in coming into this job. One always has to worry that what people say of their motives is not adequate. Many people said different things, and most of them, I think, had some validity. There was in the first place the great concern that our enemy might develop these weapons before we did, and the feeling -- at least, in the early days, the very strong feeling -- that without atomic weapons it might be very difficult, it might be an impossible, it might be an incredibly long thing to win the war. These things wore off a little as it became clear that the war would be won in any case. Some people, I think, were motivated by curiosity, and rightly so; and some by a sense of adventure, and rightly so. Others had more political arguments and said,


'Well, we know that atomic weapons are in principle possible, and it is not right that the threat of their unrealized possibility should hang over the world. It is right that the world should know what can be done in their field and deal with it.'


And the people added to that that it was a time when all over the world men would be particularly ripe and open for dealing with this problem because of the immediacy of the evils of war, because of the universal cry from everyone that one could not go through this thing again, even a war without atomic bombs. And there was finally, and I think rightly, the feeling that there was probably no place in the world where the development of atomic weapons would have a better chance of leading to a reasonable solution, and a smaller chance of leading to disaster, than within the United States. I believe all these things that people said are true, and I think I said them all myself at one time or another.''


-J. Robert Oppenheimer, November 1945, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Question 35 35. When was the atomic bomb first tested?

Page 8

Use this material to answer questions #36 through #37

map

Question 36 36. Why did the ancient Greeks encourage the establishment of colonies, as shown in red in the map?

Use this material to answer questions #36 through #37

map

Question 37 37. Greece was able to trade with numerous other countries due to its proximity to the _____ sea.

Use this material to answer questions #38 through #40

cannon

- Dardanelles Gun, an early cannon, from around 1453

Question 38 38. Cannons like the one above would have been fired using gunpowder. Which country is credited to be the inventor of gunpowder?

Use this material to answer questions #38 through #40

cannon

- Dardanelles Gun, an early cannon, from around 1453

Question 39 39. Which countries used cannons similar to the one above in the Hundred Years' War?

Use this material to answer questions #38 through #40

cannon

- Dardanelles Gun, an early cannon, from around 1453

Question 40 40. Who used gunpowder cannons very similar to the one above in their siege on Constantinople in 1453?

Page 9

Use this material to answer questions #41 through #42

''The several aqueducts reach the City at different elevations. In consequence certain ones deliver water on higher ground, while others cannot rise to the loftier points; for the hills have gradually grown higher with rubbish in consequence of frequent conflagrations. There are five whose head rises to every point in the City, but of these some are forced up with greater, others with lesser pressure. The highest is New Anio; next comes Claudia; the third place is taken by Julia; the fourth by Tepula; the last by Marcia, although at its intake this mounts even to the level of Claudia.


But the ancients laid the lines of their aqueducts at a lower elevation, either because they had not yet nicely worked out the art of levelling, or because they purposely sunk their aqueducts in the ground, in order that they might not easily be cut by the enemy, since frequent wars were still waged with the Italians. But now, whenever a conduit has succumbed to old age, it is the practice to carry it in certain parts on substructures or on arches, in order to save length, abandoning the subterranean loops in the valleys. The sixth rank in height is held by Old Anio, which would likewise be capable of supplying even the higher portions of the City, if it were raised up on substructures or arches, wherever the nature of the valleys and low places demands. Its elevation is followed by that of Virgo, then by that of Appia. These, since they were brought from points near the City, could not rise to such high elevations. Lowest of all is Alsietina, which supplies the ward across the Tiber and the very lowest districts.''


- Sextus Julius Frontinus, De Aquiductibus Urbis Romae, about 96-100 AD

Question 41 41. Sextus Julius Frontinus, in addition to being a Roman senator, was also the water commissioner. This meant he was in charge of the maintenance and repairs of what parts of Roman architecture, as described in the passage above?

Use this material to answer questions #41 through #42

''The several aqueducts reach the City at different elevations. In consequence certain ones deliver water on higher ground, while others cannot rise to the loftier points; for the hills have gradually grown higher with rubbish in consequence of frequent conflagrations. There are five whose head rises to every point in the City, but of these some are forced up with greater, others with lesser pressure. The highest is New Anio; next comes Claudia; the third place is taken by Julia; the fourth by Tepula; the last by Marcia, although at its intake this mounts even to the level of Claudia.


But the ancients laid the lines of their aqueducts at a lower elevation, either because they had not yet nicely worked out the art of levelling, or because they purposely sunk their aqueducts in the ground, in order that they might not easily be cut by the enemy, since frequent wars were still waged with the Italians. But now, whenever a conduit has succumbed to old age, it is the practice to carry it in certain parts on substructures or on arches, in order to save length, abandoning the subterranean loops in the valleys. The sixth rank in height is held by Old Anio, which would likewise be capable of supplying even the higher portions of the City, if it were raised up on substructures or arches, wherever the nature of the valleys and low places demands. Its elevation is followed by that of Virgo, then by that of Appia. These, since they were brought from points near the City, could not rise to such high elevations. Lowest of all is Alsietina, which supplies the ward across the Tiber and the very lowest districts.''


- Sextus Julius Frontinus, De Aquiductibus Urbis Romae, about 96-100 AD

Question 42 42. Sextus Julius Frontinus was in charge of the water systems of ancient Rome. What architectural element, though not created by the Romans, was used in the construction of the water systems?

Use this material to answer questions #43 through #44

July 14

''Monsieur de Corny and five others were then sent to ask arms of Monsieur de Launai, Governor of the Bastille. They found a great collection of people already before the place, and they immediately planted a flag of truce, which was answered by a like flag hoisted on the parapet. The deputation prevailed on the people to fall back a little, advanced themselves to make their demand of the Governor, and in that instant a discharge from the Bastille killed 4. people of those nearest to the deputies. The deputies retired, the people rushed against the place, and almost in an instant were in possession of a fortification, defended by 100 men, of infinite strength, which in other times had stood several regular sieges and had never been taken. How they got in, has as yet been impossible to discover. Those, who pretend to have been of the party tell so many different stories as to destroy the credit of them all.

They took all the arms, discharged the prisoners and such of the garrison as were not killed in the first moment of fury, carried the Governor and Lieutenant governor to the Greve (the place of public execution) cut off their heads, and set them through the city in triumph to the Palais royal.

-Thomas Jefferson's account of the July 14th, 1789 storming of the Bastille in France

Question 43 43. Who was the king of France during the French Revolution, and was executed due to the uprising of the French people?

Use this material to answer questions #43 through #44

July 14

''Monsieur de Corny and five others were then sent to ask arms of Monsieur de Launai, Governor of the Bastille. They found a great collection of people already before the place, and they immediately planted a flag of truce, which was answered by a like flag hoisted on the parapet. The deputation prevailed on the people to fall back a little, advanced themselves to make their demand of the Governor, and in that instant a discharge from the Bastille killed 4. people of those nearest to the deputies. The deputies retired, the people rushed against the place, and almost in an instant were in possession of a fortification, defended by 100 men, of infinite strength, which in other times had stood several regular sieges and had never been taken. How they got in, has as yet been impossible to discover. Those, who pretend to have been of the party tell so many different stories as to destroy the credit of them all.

They took all the arms, discharged the prisoners and such of the garrison as were not killed in the first moment of fury, carried the Governor and Lieutenant governor to the Greve (the place of public execution) cut off their heads, and set them through the city in triumph to the Palais royal.

-Thomas Jefferson's account of the July 14th, 1789 storming of the Bastille in France

Question 44 44. What were some of the reasons the rioters stormed the Bastille on July 14?

Use this material to answer questions #45 through #47

''Albeit the king's Majesty justly and rightfully is and ought to be the supreme head of the Church of England, and so is recognized by the clergy of this realm in their convocations, yet nevertheless, for corroboration and confirmation thereof, and for increase of virtue in Christ's religion within this realm of England, and to repress and extirpate all errors, heresies, and other enormities and abuses heretofore used in the same, be it enacted, by authority of this present Parliament, that the king, our sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall be taken, accepted, and reputed the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England, called Anglicans Ecclesia; and shall have and enjoy, annexed and united to the imperial crown of this realm, as well the title and style thereof, as all honors, dignities, preeminences, jurisdictions, privileges, authorities, immunities, profits, and commodities to the said dignity of the supreme head of the same Church belonging and appertaining; and that our said sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall have full power and authority from time to time to visit, repress, redress, record, order, correct, restrain, and amend all such errors, heresies, abuses, offenses, contempts and enormities, whatsoever they be, which by any manner of spiritual authority or jurisdiction ought or may lawfully be reformed, repressed, ordered, redressed, corrected, restrained, or amended, most to the pleasure of Almighty God, the increase of virtue in Christ's religion, and for the conservation of the peace, unity, and tranquility of this realm; any usage, foreign land, foreign authority, prescription, or any other thing or things to the contrary hereof notwithstanding.''


-King Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy, written 1534

Question 45 45. King Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy was written primarily because Henry wanted to _____ his marriage, but the Catholic church wouldn't allow it.

Page 10

Use this material to answer questions #45 through #47

''Albeit the king's Majesty justly and rightfully is and ought to be the supreme head of the Church of England, and so is recognized by the clergy of this realm in their convocations, yet nevertheless, for corroboration and confirmation thereof, and for increase of virtue in Christ's religion within this realm of England, and to repress and extirpate all errors, heresies, and other enormities and abuses heretofore used in the same, be it enacted, by authority of this present Parliament, that the king, our sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall be taken, accepted, and reputed the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England, called Anglicans Ecclesia; and shall have and enjoy, annexed and united to the imperial crown of this realm, as well the title and style thereof, as all honors, dignities, preeminences, jurisdictions, privileges, authorities, immunities, profits, and commodities to the said dignity of the supreme head of the same Church belonging and appertaining; and that our said sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall have full power and authority from time to time to visit, repress, redress, record, order, correct, restrain, and amend all such errors, heresies, abuses, offenses, contempts and enormities, whatsoever they be, which by any manner of spiritual authority or jurisdiction ought or may lawfully be reformed, repressed, ordered, redressed, corrected, restrained, or amended, most to the pleasure of Almighty God, the increase of virtue in Christ's religion, and for the conservation of the peace, unity, and tranquility of this realm; any usage, foreign land, foreign authority, prescription, or any other thing or things to the contrary hereof notwithstanding.''


-King Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy, written 1534

Question 46 46. The 1534 Act of Supremacy separated England and the Catholic church, starting which reformation?

Use this material to answer questions #45 through #47

''Albeit the king's Majesty justly and rightfully is and ought to be the supreme head of the Church of England, and so is recognized by the clergy of this realm in their convocations, yet nevertheless, for corroboration and confirmation thereof, and for increase of virtue in Christ's religion within this realm of England, and to repress and extirpate all errors, heresies, and other enormities and abuses heretofore used in the same, be it enacted, by authority of this present Parliament, that the king, our sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall be taken, accepted, and reputed the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England, called Anglicans Ecclesia; and shall have and enjoy, annexed and united to the imperial crown of this realm, as well the title and style thereof, as all honors, dignities, preeminences, jurisdictions, privileges, authorities, immunities, profits, and commodities to the said dignity of the supreme head of the same Church belonging and appertaining; and that our said sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall have full power and authority from time to time to visit, repress, redress, record, order, correct, restrain, and amend all such errors, heresies, abuses, offenses, contempts and enormities, whatsoever they be, which by any manner of spiritual authority or jurisdiction ought or may lawfully be reformed, repressed, ordered, redressed, corrected, restrained, or amended, most to the pleasure of Almighty God, the increase of virtue in Christ's religion, and for the conservation of the peace, unity, and tranquility of this realm; any usage, foreign land, foreign authority, prescription, or any other thing or things to the contrary hereof notwithstanding.''


-King Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy, written 1534

Question 47 47. Despite the Act of Supremacy, when King Henry VIII's daughter Mary I ascended to the throne, she sought to reestablish Catholicism as England's primary religion. As a result, hundreds of _____ were executed.

Use this material to answer questions #48 through #49

map
Map of India comparing 1837 and 1857 India. Pink areas indicate areas ruled over by the East India Company.

Question 48 48. The unrest and rebellions in India led the British Empire to realize the East India Company was no longer fit to do what?

Use this material to answer questions #48 through #49

map
Map of India comparing 1837 and 1857 India. Pink areas indicate areas ruled over by the East India Company.

Question 49 49. The Government of India Act of 1858 brought to an end the rule of the East India Company over India and ushered in the era of the _____.

Use this material to answer question #50

''You are horrified at our intending to do away with private property. But in your existing society private property is already done away with for nine-tenths of the population; its existence for the few is solely due to its non-existence in the hands of those nine-tenths. You reproach us, therefore, with intending to do away with a form of property, the necessary condition for whose existence is the non-existence of any property for the immense majority of society.


In one word, you reproach us with intending to do away with your property. Precisely so: that is just what we intend.''


-Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto, written about 1848

Question 50 50. What revolution did Marx and Engels blame for the oppression of the poor?

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