Copyright

GACE Program Admission Assessment Test I Reading (200): Practice & Study Guide Final Exam

Free Practice Test Instructions:

Choose your answer to the question and click 'Continue' to see how you did. Then click 'Next Question' to answer the next question. When you have completed the free practice test, click 'View Results' to see your results. Good luck!

Use this material to answer questions #1 through #5

Read the article ''Lasting Legacy: Nelson Mandela's Evolution as a Strategic Leader'' and answer the questions that follow.

While in prison, Mandela stood out - among both prisoners and guards - as highly principled, respectful, dignified and willing to sacrifice his life for his beliefs. Many of his fellow political prisoners were heroic as well. Most were well-trained, and they taught each other about their respective fields of expertise while working in the limestone quarry. Prison life was harsh, with bad food, cold sleeping conditions in the winter and long periods of loneliness. Mandela fell ill intermittently and contracted nasty lung infections, including tuberculosis, due to his years in damp prison cells. Despite these conditions, he was able to write an influential autobiography in secret titled, Long Walk to Freedom, which chronicles his life in detail against the backdrop of deep social injustice and harsh state oppression. This clandestine book was smuggled out in pieces and printed overseas when finished. It became a global best-seller. An international freedom campaign by the ANC, led by the exiled leader Oliver Tambo, had managed to make Mandela the poster child of opposition to apartheid, as well as an eloquent spokesman for a new democratic South Africa.

By Paul J. H. Schoemaker

http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/lasting-legacy-nelson-mandelas-evolution-as-a-strategic-leader/

Question 1 1.

In the first sentence of the passage, the author mentions that both the prisoners and guards considered Mandela ''principled, respectful, dignified and willing to sacrifice his life for his beliefs.''

Based on this sentence, the reader can infer the following:

Use this material to answer questions #1 through #5

Read the article ''Lasting Legacy: Nelson Mandela's Evolution as a Strategic Leader'' and answer the questions that follow.

While in prison, Mandela stood out - among both prisoners and guards - as highly principled, respectful, dignified and willing to sacrifice his life for his beliefs. Many of his fellow political prisoners were heroic as well. Most were well-trained, and they taught each other about their respective fields of expertise while working in the limestone quarry. Prison life was harsh, with bad food, cold sleeping conditions in the winter and long periods of loneliness. Mandela fell ill intermittently and contracted nasty lung infections, including tuberculosis, due to his years in damp prison cells. Despite these conditions, he was able to write an influential autobiography in secret titled, Long Walk to Freedom, which chronicles his life in detail against the backdrop of deep social injustice and harsh state oppression. This clandestine book was smuggled out in pieces and printed overseas when finished. It became a global best-seller. An international freedom campaign by the ANC, led by the exiled leader Oliver Tambo, had managed to make Mandela the poster child of opposition to apartheid, as well as an eloquent spokesman for a new democratic South Africa.

By Paul J. H. Schoemaker

http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/lasting-legacy-nelson-mandelas-evolution-as-a-strategic-leader/

Question 2 2. The entire first paragraph has which of the following organizational structures?

Use this material to answer questions #1 through #5

Read the article ''Lasting Legacy: Nelson Mandela's Evolution as a Strategic Leader'' and answer the questions that follow.

While in prison, Mandela stood out - among both prisoners and guards - as highly principled, respectful, dignified and willing to sacrifice his life for his beliefs. Many of his fellow political prisoners were heroic as well. Most were well-trained, and they taught each other about their respective fields of expertise while working in the limestone quarry. Prison life was harsh, with bad food, cold sleeping conditions in the winter and long periods of loneliness. Mandela fell ill intermittently and contracted nasty lung infections, including tuberculosis, due to his years in damp prison cells. Despite these conditions, he was able to write an influential autobiography in secret titled, Long Walk to Freedom, which chronicles his life in detail against the backdrop of deep social injustice and harsh state oppression. This clandestine book was smuggled out in pieces and printed overseas when finished. It became a global best-seller. An international freedom campaign by the ANC, led by the exiled leader Oliver Tambo, had managed to make Mandela the poster child of opposition to apartheid, as well as an eloquent spokesman for a new democratic South Africa.

By Paul J. H. Schoemaker

http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/lasting-legacy-nelson-mandelas-evolution-as-a-strategic-leader/

Question 3 3.

In the first sentence of the second paragraph, the author mentions Mandela's autobiography, ''which chronicles his life in detail…''

Using knowledge of word structure, the reader can understand that ''chronicle'' means which of the following?

Use this material to answer questions #1 through #5

Read the article ''Lasting Legacy: Nelson Mandela's Evolution as a Strategic Leader'' and answer the questions that follow.

While in prison, Mandela stood out - among both prisoners and guards - as highly principled, respectful, dignified and willing to sacrifice his life for his beliefs. Many of his fellow political prisoners were heroic as well. Most were well-trained, and they taught each other about their respective fields of expertise while working in the limestone quarry. Prison life was harsh, with bad food, cold sleeping conditions in the winter and long periods of loneliness. Mandela fell ill intermittently and contracted nasty lung infections, including tuberculosis, due to his years in damp prison cells. Despite these conditions, he was able to write an influential autobiography in secret titled, Long Walk to Freedom, which chronicles his life in detail against the backdrop of deep social injustice and harsh state oppression. This clandestine book was smuggled out in pieces and printed overseas when finished. It became a global best-seller. An international freedom campaign by the ANC, led by the exiled leader Oliver Tambo, had managed to make Mandela the poster child of opposition to apartheid, as well as an eloquent spokesman for a new democratic South Africa.

By Paul J. H. Schoemaker

http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/lasting-legacy-nelson-mandelas-evolution-as-a-strategic-leader/

Question 4 4. The author mentions that Mandela's book Long Walk to Freedom was a global best-seller. Based on this, the reader can infer that the book was both _____.

Use this material to answer questions #1 through #5

Read the article ''Lasting Legacy: Nelson Mandela's Evolution as a Strategic Leader'' and answer the questions that follow.

While in prison, Mandela stood out - among both prisoners and guards - as highly principled, respectful, dignified and willing to sacrifice his life for his beliefs. Many of his fellow political prisoners were heroic as well. Most were well-trained, and they taught each other about their respective fields of expertise while working in the limestone quarry. Prison life was harsh, with bad food, cold sleeping conditions in the winter and long periods of loneliness. Mandela fell ill intermittently and contracted nasty lung infections, including tuberculosis, due to his years in damp prison cells. Despite these conditions, he was able to write an influential autobiography in secret titled, Long Walk to Freedom, which chronicles his life in detail against the backdrop of deep social injustice and harsh state oppression. This clandestine book was smuggled out in pieces and printed overseas when finished. It became a global best-seller. An international freedom campaign by the ANC, led by the exiled leader Oliver Tambo, had managed to make Mandela the poster child of opposition to apartheid, as well as an eloquent spokesman for a new democratic South Africa.

By Paul J. H. Schoemaker

http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/lasting-legacy-nelson-mandelas-evolution-as-a-strategic-leader/

Question 5 5. The author states that the prisoners taught each other about their areas of expertise while in the limestone quarry. Which of the following statements does NOT logically follow?

Use this material to answer questions #6 through #10

Read the National Geographic article ''Bears Are Caring for Their Cubs Longer in Response to Hunting'' and answer the questions that follow.

Bears Are Caring for Their Cubs Longer in Response to Hunting:

Results from a new study could have implications for brown bear evolution.

Over the years, several researchers noticed a change in the way that Scandinavian brown bears care for their young. Sweden has one of the fastest bear reproduction rates in the world, and it seems that females were spending more time with their cubs. ''We needed to provide evidence, and then that triggered new questions,'' says Joanie Van de Walle, a PhD student in the Department of Biology at the University de Sherbrooke in Quebec, Canada. Van de Walle is part of an international team of researchers who combed through decades of data on brown bear populations in Sweden to investigate this trend. By following the lives of hundreds of bears, the researchers determined that more mothers are raising their cubs for one year longer than they have in the past.

This behavioral shift can be directly attributed to humans, according to a study published March 27 in Nature Communications. With a population of around 3,000 bears that could be increasing by as much as five percent each year, sustainable hunting tactics can keep bear numbers at bay. This behavioral shift of mother bears caring for their young for a longer time could be directly related to hunting regulations. In the same way that humans shape wildlife by killing animals, we can also shape wildlife by not killing them. Long-term, this could have implications for brown bear evolution.

Grizzly Research:

Evolutionarily, it doesn't usually make sense for wildlife to have fewer offspring and care for them over a long period of time. When facing high hunting pressure, it's logical that brown bears would have as many cubs as possible, but the team's findings contradict this. The researchers looked at 22 years' worth of data, following more than 500 bears, many of them from birth to death. Before 2005, they found that only about seven percent of Scandinavian brown bear mothers kept their cubs for a year and a half. Between 2005 and 2015, the study found that more than 36 percent of females are keeping their cubs for an extra year. Although the amount of time spent with their young is changing, the strategies bear mothers are using to raise their cubs are not.

Hunting pressure in Sweden is high, and the researchers were surprised by these findings. But, when related to a relatively recent law that makes it illegal to hunt mother bears in Sweden, the data make more sense. Staying in family groups would provide a win-win situation for females to lead safer lives protected from hunters while allowing them more time to care for their young.

''A single female in Sweden is four times more likely to be shot as one with a cub,'' Jon Swenson, a professor in the Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, says in a press release. Caring for the cubs for a longer time has the added bonus of giving them a better chance of survival long-term. The researchers found that female cubs that received extended parenting survived their second year of life. But, 22 percent of cubs that were cut loose after a year and a half didn't make it to three years. In addition to being hunted by humans, all cubs that mothers let go of early were more likely to be killed by other bears over brawls for territory or resources. This new technique of reproducing slower but taking care of cubs for longer ''outpaces reproductive opportunities,'' Van de Walle says.

Changing Composition:

When females keep their cubs around for longer, the mothers reproduce less often and, long-term, have fewer offspring throughout their lives. But, all things considered, the longer lives female brown bears are living counteracts their reduced birth rate. ''The females that keep their young longer, they lose their reproductive opportunity,'' says Fanie Pelletier, a biology professor at the University de Sherbrooke. ''It kind of cancels out. The composition of the population is different.'' This means there will be more adult females entering the population, and hunting will be diverted to male bears and young females without cubs, Van de Walle says. Hunters will continue to shoot females who only keep their cubs for a little over a year, but since fewer mature female bears can be shot, the overall population is likely to continue growing. If females caring longer for cubs give birth to females who will then care longer for their cubs, this could lead to evolution in the population. In North America, female brown bears already stay with their young for about two and a half years.

''It would be really interesting to see if this female reproductive behavior could be passed on to the cubs as well,'' Van de Walle says.

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/03/brown-bears-cubs-reproduction-spd/

By Elaina Zachos

PUBLISHED March 28, 2018

Question 6 6. The research in this passage focuses mostly on bears in _____

Use this material to answer questions #6 through #10

Read the National Geographic article ''Bears Are Caring for Their Cubs Longer in Response to Hunting'' and answer the questions that follow.

Bears Are Caring for Their Cubs Longer in Response to Hunting:

Results from a new study could have implications for brown bear evolution.

Over the years, several researchers noticed a change in the way that Scandinavian brown bears care for their young. Sweden has one of the fastest bear reproduction rates in the world, and it seems that females were spending more time with their cubs. ''We needed to provide evidence, and then that triggered new questions,'' says Joanie Van de Walle, a PhD student in the Department of Biology at the University de Sherbrooke in Quebec, Canada. Van de Walle is part of an international team of researchers who combed through decades of data on brown bear populations in Sweden to investigate this trend. By following the lives of hundreds of bears, the researchers determined that more mothers are raising their cubs for one year longer than they have in the past.

This behavioral shift can be directly attributed to humans, according to a study published March 27 in Nature Communications. With a population of around 3,000 bears that could be increasing by as much as five percent each year, sustainable hunting tactics can keep bear numbers at bay. This behavioral shift of mother bears caring for their young for a longer time could be directly related to hunting regulations. In the same way that humans shape wildlife by killing animals, we can also shape wildlife by not killing them. Long-term, this could have implications for brown bear evolution.

Grizzly Research:

Evolutionarily, it doesn't usually make sense for wildlife to have fewer offspring and care for them over a long period of time. When facing high hunting pressure, it's logical that brown bears would have as many cubs as possible, but the team's findings contradict this. The researchers looked at 22 years' worth of data, following more than 500 bears, many of them from birth to death. Before 2005, they found that only about seven percent of Scandinavian brown bear mothers kept their cubs for a year and a half. Between 2005 and 2015, the study found that more than 36 percent of females are keeping their cubs for an extra year. Although the amount of time spent with their young is changing, the strategies bear mothers are using to raise their cubs are not.

Hunting pressure in Sweden is high, and the researchers were surprised by these findings. But, when related to a relatively recent law that makes it illegal to hunt mother bears in Sweden, the data make more sense. Staying in family groups would provide a win-win situation for females to lead safer lives protected from hunters while allowing them more time to care for their young.

''A single female in Sweden is four times more likely to be shot as one with a cub,'' Jon Swenson, a professor in the Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, says in a press release. Caring for the cubs for a longer time has the added bonus of giving them a better chance of survival long-term. The researchers found that female cubs that received extended parenting survived their second year of life. But, 22 percent of cubs that were cut loose after a year and a half didn't make it to three years. In addition to being hunted by humans, all cubs that mothers let go of early were more likely to be killed by other bears over brawls for territory or resources. This new technique of reproducing slower but taking care of cubs for longer ''outpaces reproductive opportunities,'' Van de Walle says.

Changing Composition:

When females keep their cubs around for longer, the mothers reproduce less often and, long-term, have fewer offspring throughout their lives. But, all things considered, the longer lives female brown bears are living counteracts their reduced birth rate. ''The females that keep their young longer, they lose their reproductive opportunity,'' says Fanie Pelletier, a biology professor at the University de Sherbrooke. ''It kind of cancels out. The composition of the population is different.'' This means there will be more adult females entering the population, and hunting will be diverted to male bears and young females without cubs, Van de Walle says. Hunters will continue to shoot females who only keep their cubs for a little over a year, but since fewer mature female bears can be shot, the overall population is likely to continue growing. If females caring longer for cubs give birth to females who will then care longer for their cubs, this could lead to evolution in the population. In North America, female brown bears already stay with their young for about two and a half years.

''It would be really interesting to see if this female reproductive behavior could be passed on to the cubs as well,'' Van de Walle says.

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/03/brown-bears-cubs-reproduction-spd/

By Elaina Zachos

PUBLISHED March 28, 2018

Question 7 7. The overall message in this passage is that:

Use this material to answer questions #6 through #10

Read the National Geographic article ''Bears Are Caring for Their Cubs Longer in Response to Hunting'' and answer the questions that follow.

Bears Are Caring for Their Cubs Longer in Response to Hunting:

Results from a new study could have implications for brown bear evolution.

Over the years, several researchers noticed a change in the way that Scandinavian brown bears care for their young. Sweden has one of the fastest bear reproduction rates in the world, and it seems that females were spending more time with their cubs. ''We needed to provide evidence, and then that triggered new questions,'' says Joanie Van de Walle, a PhD student in the Department of Biology at the University de Sherbrooke in Quebec, Canada. Van de Walle is part of an international team of researchers who combed through decades of data on brown bear populations in Sweden to investigate this trend. By following the lives of hundreds of bears, the researchers determined that more mothers are raising their cubs for one year longer than they have in the past.

This behavioral shift can be directly attributed to humans, according to a study published March 27 in Nature Communications. With a population of around 3,000 bears that could be increasing by as much as five percent each year, sustainable hunting tactics can keep bear numbers at bay. This behavioral shift of mother bears caring for their young for a longer time could be directly related to hunting regulations. In the same way that humans shape wildlife by killing animals, we can also shape wildlife by not killing them. Long-term, this could have implications for brown bear evolution.

Grizzly Research:

Evolutionarily, it doesn't usually make sense for wildlife to have fewer offspring and care for them over a long period of time. When facing high hunting pressure, it's logical that brown bears would have as many cubs as possible, but the team's findings contradict this. The researchers looked at 22 years' worth of data, following more than 500 bears, many of them from birth to death. Before 2005, they found that only about seven percent of Scandinavian brown bear mothers kept their cubs for a year and a half. Between 2005 and 2015, the study found that more than 36 percent of females are keeping their cubs for an extra year. Although the amount of time spent with their young is changing, the strategies bear mothers are using to raise their cubs are not.

Hunting pressure in Sweden is high, and the researchers were surprised by these findings. But, when related to a relatively recent law that makes it illegal to hunt mother bears in Sweden, the data make more sense. Staying in family groups would provide a win-win situation for females to lead safer lives protected from hunters while allowing them more time to care for their young.

''A single female in Sweden is four times more likely to be shot as one with a cub,'' Jon Swenson, a professor in the Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, says in a press release. Caring for the cubs for a longer time has the added bonus of giving them a better chance of survival long-term. The researchers found that female cubs that received extended parenting survived their second year of life. But, 22 percent of cubs that were cut loose after a year and a half didn't make it to three years. In addition to being hunted by humans, all cubs that mothers let go of early were more likely to be killed by other bears over brawls for territory or resources. This new technique of reproducing slower but taking care of cubs for longer ''outpaces reproductive opportunities,'' Van de Walle says.

Changing Composition:

When females keep their cubs around for longer, the mothers reproduce less often and, long-term, have fewer offspring throughout their lives. But, all things considered, the longer lives female brown bears are living counteracts their reduced birth rate. ''The females that keep their young longer, they lose their reproductive opportunity,'' says Fanie Pelletier, a biology professor at the University de Sherbrooke. ''It kind of cancels out. The composition of the population is different.'' This means there will be more adult females entering the population, and hunting will be diverted to male bears and young females without cubs, Van de Walle says. Hunters will continue to shoot females who only keep their cubs for a little over a year, but since fewer mature female bears can be shot, the overall population is likely to continue growing. If females caring longer for cubs give birth to females who will then care longer for their cubs, this could lead to evolution in the population. In North America, female brown bears already stay with their young for about two and a half years.

''It would be really interesting to see if this female reproductive behavior could be passed on to the cubs as well,'' Van de Walle says.

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/03/brown-bears-cubs-reproduction-spd/

By Elaina Zachos

PUBLISHED March 28, 2018

Question 8 8. The phrase, ''In the same way'' at the beginning of paragraph five serves as a transition used in which organizational structure?

Use this material to answer questions #6 through #10

Read the National Geographic article ''Bears Are Caring for Their Cubs Longer in Response to Hunting'' and answer the questions that follow.

Bears Are Caring for Their Cubs Longer in Response to Hunting:

Results from a new study could have implications for brown bear evolution.

Over the years, several researchers noticed a change in the way that Scandinavian brown bears care for their young. Sweden has one of the fastest bear reproduction rates in the world, and it seems that females were spending more time with their cubs. ''We needed to provide evidence, and then that triggered new questions,'' says Joanie Van de Walle, a PhD student in the Department of Biology at the University de Sherbrooke in Quebec, Canada. Van de Walle is part of an international team of researchers who combed through decades of data on brown bear populations in Sweden to investigate this trend. By following the lives of hundreds of bears, the researchers determined that more mothers are raising their cubs for one year longer than they have in the past.

This behavioral shift can be directly attributed to humans, according to a study published March 27 in Nature Communications. With a population of around 3,000 bears that could be increasing by as much as five percent each year, sustainable hunting tactics can keep bear numbers at bay. This behavioral shift of mother bears caring for their young for a longer time could be directly related to hunting regulations. In the same way that humans shape wildlife by killing animals, we can also shape wildlife by not killing them. Long-term, this could have implications for brown bear evolution.

Grizzly Research:

Evolutionarily, it doesn't usually make sense for wildlife to have fewer offspring and care for them over a long period of time. When facing high hunting pressure, it's logical that brown bears would have as many cubs as possible, but the team's findings contradict this. The researchers looked at 22 years' worth of data, following more than 500 bears, many of them from birth to death. Before 2005, they found that only about seven percent of Scandinavian brown bear mothers kept their cubs for a year and a half. Between 2005 and 2015, the study found that more than 36 percent of females are keeping their cubs for an extra year. Although the amount of time spent with their young is changing, the strategies bear mothers are using to raise their cubs are not.

Hunting pressure in Sweden is high, and the researchers were surprised by these findings. But, when related to a relatively recent law that makes it illegal to hunt mother bears in Sweden, the data make more sense. Staying in family groups would provide a win-win situation for females to lead safer lives protected from hunters while allowing them more time to care for their young.

''A single female in Sweden is four times more likely to be shot as one with a cub,'' Jon Swenson, a professor in the Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, says in a press release. Caring for the cubs for a longer time has the added bonus of giving them a better chance of survival long-term. The researchers found that female cubs that received extended parenting survived their second year of life. But, 22 percent of cubs that were cut loose after a year and a half didn't make it to three years. In addition to being hunted by humans, all cubs that mothers let go of early were more likely to be killed by other bears over brawls for territory or resources. This new technique of reproducing slower but taking care of cubs for longer ''outpaces reproductive opportunities,'' Van de Walle says.

Changing Composition:

When females keep their cubs around for longer, the mothers reproduce less often and, long-term, have fewer offspring throughout their lives. But, all things considered, the longer lives female brown bears are living counteracts their reduced birth rate. ''The females that keep their young longer, they lose their reproductive opportunity,'' says Fanie Pelletier, a biology professor at the University de Sherbrooke. ''It kind of cancels out. The composition of the population is different.'' This means there will be more adult females entering the population, and hunting will be diverted to male bears and young females without cubs, Van de Walle says. Hunters will continue to shoot females who only keep their cubs for a little over a year, but since fewer mature female bears can be shot, the overall population is likely to continue growing. If females caring longer for cubs give birth to females who will then care longer for their cubs, this could lead to evolution in the population. In North America, female brown bears already stay with their young for about two and a half years.

''It would be really interesting to see if this female reproductive behavior could be passed on to the cubs as well,'' Van de Walle says.

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/03/brown-bears-cubs-reproduction-spd/

By Elaina Zachos

PUBLISHED March 28, 2018

Question 9 9. Which of the following is considered an opinion from the article?

Use this material to answer questions #6 through #10

Read the National Geographic article ''Bears Are Caring for Their Cubs Longer in Response to Hunting'' and answer the questions that follow.

Bears Are Caring for Their Cubs Longer in Response to Hunting:

Results from a new study could have implications for brown bear evolution.

Over the years, several researchers noticed a change in the way that Scandinavian brown bears care for their young. Sweden has one of the fastest bear reproduction rates in the world, and it seems that females were spending more time with their cubs. ''We needed to provide evidence, and then that triggered new questions,'' says Joanie Van de Walle, a PhD student in the Department of Biology at the University de Sherbrooke in Quebec, Canada. Van de Walle is part of an international team of researchers who combed through decades of data on brown bear populations in Sweden to investigate this trend. By following the lives of hundreds of bears, the researchers determined that more mothers are raising their cubs for one year longer than they have in the past.

This behavioral shift can be directly attributed to humans, according to a study published March 27 in Nature Communications. With a population of around 3,000 bears that could be increasing by as much as five percent each year, sustainable hunting tactics can keep bear numbers at bay. This behavioral shift of mother bears caring for their young for a longer time could be directly related to hunting regulations. In the same way that humans shape wildlife by killing animals, we can also shape wildlife by not killing them. Long-term, this could have implications for brown bear evolution.

Grizzly Research:

Evolutionarily, it doesn't usually make sense for wildlife to have fewer offspring and care for them over a long period of time. When facing high hunting pressure, it's logical that brown bears would have as many cubs as possible, but the team's findings contradict this. The researchers looked at 22 years' worth of data, following more than 500 bears, many of them from birth to death. Before 2005, they found that only about seven percent of Scandinavian brown bear mothers kept their cubs for a year and a half. Between 2005 and 2015, the study found that more than 36 percent of females are keeping their cubs for an extra year. Although the amount of time spent with their young is changing, the strategies bear mothers are using to raise their cubs are not.

Hunting pressure in Sweden is high, and the researchers were surprised by these findings. But, when related to a relatively recent law that makes it illegal to hunt mother bears in Sweden, the data make more sense. Staying in family groups would provide a win-win situation for females to lead safer lives protected from hunters while allowing them more time to care for their young.

''A single female in Sweden is four times more likely to be shot as one with a cub,'' Jon Swenson, a professor in the Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, says in a press release. Caring for the cubs for a longer time has the added bonus of giving them a better chance of survival long-term. The researchers found that female cubs that received extended parenting survived their second year of life. But, 22 percent of cubs that were cut loose after a year and a half didn't make it to three years. In addition to being hunted by humans, all cubs that mothers let go of early were more likely to be killed by other bears over brawls for territory or resources. This new technique of reproducing slower but taking care of cubs for longer ''outpaces reproductive opportunities,'' Van de Walle says.

Changing Composition:

When females keep their cubs around for longer, the mothers reproduce less often and, long-term, have fewer offspring throughout their lives. But, all things considered, the longer lives female brown bears are living counteracts their reduced birth rate. ''The females that keep their young longer, they lose their reproductive opportunity,'' says Fanie Pelletier, a biology professor at the University de Sherbrooke. ''It kind of cancels out. The composition of the population is different.'' This means there will be more adult females entering the population, and hunting will be diverted to male bears and young females without cubs, Van de Walle says. Hunters will continue to shoot females who only keep their cubs for a little over a year, but since fewer mature female bears can be shot, the overall population is likely to continue growing. If females caring longer for cubs give birth to females who will then care longer for their cubs, this could lead to evolution in the population. In North America, female brown bears already stay with their young for about two and a half years.

''It would be really interesting to see if this female reproductive behavior could be passed on to the cubs as well,'' Van de Walle says.

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/03/brown-bears-cubs-reproduction-spd/

By Elaina Zachos

PUBLISHED March 28, 2018

Question 10 10.

''This means there will be more adult females entering the population, and hunting will be diverted to male bears and young females without cubs.''

When referring to the sentence above, the reader can use his or her knowledge of word stems to understand that ''diverted to'' most closely means which of the following?

Question 11 11. The common phrase, ''He is a bull in a china shop'' is an example of which of the following figures of speech?

Question 12 12. Which of the following is the correct use of the word ''your?''

Question 13 13. Which of the following are primary sources?

Question 14 14. The difference between ordinal data and interval data is that while both do have a prescribed order:

Question 15 15. Between acts, members of the audience milled about the auditorium. Select the BEST paraphrasing of this sentence.

Tell us about yourself

Are you a student or a teacher?

I am a student I am a teacher

GACE Program Admission Assessment Test I Reading (200): Practice & Study Guide Final Free Practice Test Instructions

Choose your answer to the question and click 'Continue' to see how you did. Then click 'Next Question' to answer the next question. When you have completed the free practice test, click 'View Results' to see your results. Good luck!

GACE Program Admission Assessment Test I Reading (200): Practice & Study Guide  /  GACE Prep
Support