American Revolution Era Flashcards

American Revolution Era Flashcards
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Empowerment from the Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation assigned the most power to the states, not the federal government.
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Articles of Confederation

Created a central government for diplomacy, printing money, resolving controversies between the states and coordinating war efforts.

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XYZ Affair

Occurred during John Adams' presidency; averted war with France.

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Thomas Paine's Common Sense

A publication that swayed public opinion in favor of toward rebellion. It used Biblical arguments from preachers of the Great Awakening to convince Americans they needed to rebel.

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Olive Branch Petition

This letter insisted the colonies wanted to negotiate trade and tax regulations with Great Britain, not gain independence, but the King declared them to be in rebellion.

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Precedent for the Declaration of Indep.
The Declaration of Independence set the precedent for other nations around the world to decide for themselves how they would be ruled and by whom. No other nation had done something so radical.
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Main Sections of the Declaration of Independence

The preamble or introduction, the grievances, and the actual Declaration of Independence.

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The Preamble of the Declaration of Independence
The introduction of the Declaration of Independence states the purpose of the government, created by the people, is for the people and must protect the peoples' 'certain unalienable rights.'
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Date the Declaration was Signed
Fourth of July, 1776
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Mention of slaves in the Declaration of Independence
In the first draft, the Declaration of Independence blamed the King for 'maintaining a market where men are bought and sold.'
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Actions of the Declaration of Independence

It officially separated the colonies from British control, committed the colonists to the idea of the consent of the governed, blamed the King for their rebellion, and set a new precedent.

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Famous text from the Declaration of Independence

'We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty...'

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The Treaty of Paris
The 1783 Treaty of Paris had ten articles and through it Britain agreed to recognize American independence as far west as the Mississippi River.
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Final battle of the Revolutionary War

The Battle of Yorktown was a three-week siege that led the British to surrender and end the war.

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Tories

A group of people, also called loyalists, that were loyal to the British government and clashed with the Patriots.

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The precursor of the battles of Lexington and Concord

After the Boston Tea Party, Massachusetts was under the control of the British army. Rumors of a rebellion led to an attempted raid and the battles of Lexington and Concord.

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John Paul Jones
Scotsmen who became internationally renowned for his naval victories like the 1779 victory over His Majesty's Ship Serapis
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The Battle of Saratoga

It was a turning point in the revolutionary war. It was also a political victory as Benjamin Franklin petitioned France and they formed an official alliance for the war.

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Slavery and the Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence definitively outlined the rights of the people and many African Americans thought the new government would defend their rights as well. Unfortunately, slavery was left out entirely.

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Ideal role of women during and post-Revolution

Republican motherhood; women were to teach her children classical subject, the bible, and republican virtues.

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75 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

The founding fathers of the United States crafted a series of powerfully written documents that would later shape their democratic government. While soldiers endured hardships in the French and Indian War and the American Revolution, they did not fight in vain. Eventually, the United States would draft the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, setting a new world standard for governance and independence.

The people during this time also explored new political and religious beliefs that helped fuel the actions that propelled the nation forward. Explore a rich and formative time in U.S. history through these flashcards for a deeper understanding of the revolution era and how the United States came to be the nation it is today.

Front
Back
Ideal role of women during and post-Revolution

Republican motherhood; women were to teach her children classical subject, the bible, and republican virtues.

Slavery and the Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence definitively outlined the rights of the people and many African Americans thought the new government would defend their rights as well. Unfortunately, slavery was left out entirely.

The Battle of Saratoga

It was a turning point in the revolutionary war. It was also a political victory as Benjamin Franklin petitioned France and they formed an official alliance for the war.

John Paul Jones
Scotsmen who became internationally renowned for his naval victories like the 1779 victory over His Majesty's Ship Serapis
The precursor of the battles of Lexington and Concord

After the Boston Tea Party, Massachusetts was under the control of the British army. Rumors of a rebellion led to an attempted raid and the battles of Lexington and Concord.

Tories

A group of people, also called loyalists, that were loyal to the British government and clashed with the Patriots.

Final battle of the Revolutionary War

The Battle of Yorktown was a three-week siege that led the British to surrender and end the war.

The Treaty of Paris
The 1783 Treaty of Paris had ten articles and through it Britain agreed to recognize American independence as far west as the Mississippi River.
Famous text from the Declaration of Independence

'We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty...'

Actions of the Declaration of Independence

It officially separated the colonies from British control, committed the colonists to the idea of the consent of the governed, blamed the King for their rebellion, and set a new precedent.

Mention of slaves in the Declaration of Independence
In the first draft, the Declaration of Independence blamed the King for 'maintaining a market where men are bought and sold.'
Date the Declaration was Signed
Fourth of July, 1776
The Preamble of the Declaration of Independence
The introduction of the Declaration of Independence states the purpose of the government, created by the people, is for the people and must protect the peoples' 'certain unalienable rights.'
Main Sections of the Declaration of Independence

The preamble or introduction, the grievances, and the actual Declaration of Independence.

Precedent for the Declaration of Indep.
The Declaration of Independence set the precedent for other nations around the world to decide for themselves how they would be ruled and by whom. No other nation had done something so radical.
Olive Branch Petition

This letter insisted the colonies wanted to negotiate trade and tax regulations with Great Britain, not gain independence, but the King declared them to be in rebellion.

Thomas Paine's Common Sense

A publication that swayed public opinion in favor of toward rebellion. It used Biblical arguments from preachers of the Great Awakening to convince Americans they needed to rebel.

XYZ Affair

Occurred during John Adams' presidency; averted war with France.

Articles of Confederation

Created a central government for diplomacy, printing money, resolving controversies between the states and coordinating war efforts.

Empowerment from the Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation assigned the most power to the states, not the federal government.
Voting power and the Articles of Confederation

Under the Articles of Confederation, primary power was given to the states and each state had one vote under the unicameral legislature, meaning it only had one body or house.

Northwest Ordinance

Accomplished under the Articles of Confederation, this ordinance was passed to organize territories and establish a clear path to statehood.

The Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution that guaranteed the rights of every citizen in the United States including freedom of speech, right to bear arms, and right to trial by jury.

Tenth Amendment

This amendment resolved the issue of state verses federal rights by declaring that powers not given to the federal government are reserved to the state.

The Great Compromise

Two separate houses would be established creating a bicameral legislature- one by population (Virginia Plan) and one where all states get equal representation (New Jersey Plan.)

1787 Constitutional Convention
The meeting was set to amend the Articles of Confederation because they proved to be too weak. The outcome of the convention was drafting a new document: the U.S. constitution.
The Virginia Plan

This plan said that each state should gain representation based on population.

New Jersey Plan
This plan stated that all states get an equal number of representatives in the new government regardless of state size.
Federalist Papers

The Federalists, or those in support of the ratification, wrote 85 essays for New York Newspapers analyzing the constitution and attempting to convince people to ratify the Constitution.

The constitution's influence on government structure

The first three articles of the Constitution established three branches of government: executive, judicial, and legislative. It divided power equally among the difference branches.

The branches of government

The legislative (Congress), executive (President), and judicial (Supreme Court and lower courts).

Representative and Senator terms

Under the legislative branch of government, US Senators are elected every 6 years, and Representatives elected every 2 years.

Executive Power
The President through the executive branch can veto or approve new laws, pardon and appoint ambassadors, judges (Supreme Court), and other official though they must be approved by Congress.
Judicial Branch of Government

The job of the judicial branch is to interpret the law through the Supreme Court and federal lower courts.

Power among the three branches

No branch is more powerful than another. Through the system of checks and balances, the power is divided into each of the three branches equally.

The Supreme Court Judge

Through the judicial branch, the Supreme Court Judge serves for life, not a set number of years; and they are appointed, not elected; they can declare laws to be unconstitutional;

Economy under the Articles of Confederation

With the inability to collect taxes under the Articles of Confederation, inflation began plaguing many people, forcing them to lose their farms or be put in debtor prison.

Shays' Rebellion

With the economic crisis, Daniel Shays and others went to the state courthouse to rebel and stop them from the foreclosures. With no American military under the Articles, no one could stop them.

Lessons learned from Shays' Rebellion
Shays' Rebellion showed that for the American experiment to work there had to be a stronger central government.
Colonists' effective protest method against the British

The colonists discovered that boycotting British goods was particularly effective in sending their message to Britain.

Townshend Acts

Charles Townshend devised a plan to get tax evaders to pay taxes indirectly through import duties. As a result, British soldiers were sent to the colonies to enforce the laws.

George Grenville impact

Following the French and Indian War, to pay off Britain's debtors, Grenville developed policy changes that would tax the colonies like the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act.

The Stamp Act

This tax caused fierce opposition because not only did it required a stamp on all printed materials, it was a direct tax passed without any representation.

Historical periods in order
The Dark Ages, the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, the American Revolution
Enlightenment and traditional government

Scholars of this age favored the democratic model of government over the monarchic government.

Republicanism
States that the ruler gets authority from below - leaders are chosen by the people. By contrast, citizens get their rights from God, not from the monarch.
American ideologies inspired by enlightenment

Religious tolerance; Government should feature a separation of powers; Democratic elections establish authority.

Benjamin Franklin

Arguably the single most important figure of the Enlightenment in America. He published Poor Richard's Almanack to entertain the colonists and instill Enlightenment values in them.

The Boston Tea Party

The Colonists dumped a ship's worth of British imported tea into the harbor as a sign of rebellion to the continued taxes placed on British goods without representation.

The First Continental Congress

The First Congressional Congress met to assert their rights within the British government and protest the Tea Act, not to rebel against it.

The Great Awakening

A religious revival, the Great Awakening changed the way people thought about their relationship with the divine, with themselves and with other people. Religious tolerance increased.

Enlightenment vs. Great Awakening

The Enlightenment engaged the mind with political views, but the Great Awakening engaged the heart with religion.

Similarities between the Enlightenment & the Great Awakening

These both emphasized human decision in matters of religion and morality. They respected each individual's feelings and emotions and encouraged colonists to challenge traditions.

Cause of the French and Indian War

World powers began to fight over territories in Europe, Africa, India, North America, South America and the Philippines. This led to the start of the French and Indian War.

Fort Duquesne Significance

The King had denied the colonists' request to raise an army to put an end to the French threat until France established Fort Duquesne near present-day Pittsburgh and the King relented.

Territory at stake in the French & Indian War

Ohio Territory; France believed they had exclusive rights to Ohio since their people had been their first, but a group of English colonists had also claimed the area and set up trade posts.

The French and Indian War's name

The war was called The French and Indian War because both sides, the colonists and the French both fought with Native American allies.

End of the French and Indian War
The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763, giving England control of Canada and the eastern half of the Louisiana Territory
General Edward Braddock

When Britain decided that they needed more experienced leadership, they dispatched General Edward Braddock with an aggressive 3-pronged battle plan, but he was killed on his way to battle.

King George's Declaration of War 1756

The French Troops captured Colonel Washington's newly established fort, Fort Necessity, prompting King George to answer the colonists' cry for help and declare war.

Outcomes of the French and Indian War

It improved relationships between some Native American groups; It placed England in debt and led them to tax the colonists; It ended with British troops returning to police.

Relational Result of the French and Indian War
A significant effect of the French and Indian War was the worsened relationship between the colonies and England. The colonists were treated like second-class citizens and taxes from England piled on.
Common Misconception of the Declaration of Independence

This letter did NOT establish a new government for the former American colonies.

Right not established by states before federal law
Universal suffrage was not established by the state governments, instead, there were different plans which enabled only certain people to vote.
Problems with the Articles of Confederation

Congress couldn't enforce the request for soldiers. They could print money, but they could not tax, nor back the money, so inflation soared and people had worthless money.

Element of the American government designed by the Great Compromise

The bicameral legislature was established, with one house based on population and one house with equal representation.

Ninth Amendment
This amendment states that rights not listed may exist, and just because they are not listed doesn't mean they can be violated.
Eighth Amendment
This amendment secures the freedom from excessive bail, and cruel and unusual punishments.
Seventh Amendment
This amendment secures the right of trial by jury in civil cases.
Sixth Amendment
This amendment states the rights of those accused of a crime, such as the right to a speedy and public trial and the right to have an attorney.
Fifth Amendment

This amendment protects the right to due process of law, freedom from self-incrimination, and double jeopardy.

Fourth Amendment
This amendment guarantees the freedom from unreasonable searches and seizure.
Third Amendment
This amendment guarantees no quartering of soldiers, without the consent of the home owner.
Second Amendment
This amendment guarantees the right to bear arms.
First Amendment
This amendment guarantees the freedom of religion, speech, press, and peaceable assembly.

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