Animal & Plant Biology Flashcards

Animal & Plant Biology Flashcards
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Vascular Plants
Plants that contain the two vascular tissues of xylem and phloem
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Allantois
Membrane that resembles a sac and is responsible for removing embryonic waste
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Yolk Sac
Membrane that surrounds the egg yolk and is responsible for transporting nutrients between the egg yolk and the embryo
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Amniotic Fluid
Fluid found within the amnion that surrounds the developing fetus for protection and development, especially of the arms, legs, and lungs
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Zona Pellucida
Thick, outer layer of extracellular matrix that forms around the ovum as it travels down the fallopian tube
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Chorionic Villi
Tiny, finger-shaped growths that project off of the chorion, which create a connection between the blood of the mother and the blood of the embyro
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Chorion
A membrane created by the embryo that develops between the fetus and the mother in the beginning of the pregnancy
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Placenta
Tissues from both the embryo and the mother that provide support and nutrients to the growing embryo
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Acrosome
This is the portion of sperm that forms a cap-like covering over the tip of the sperm cell. Its purpose is to penetrate the outermost ovum layers to allow for fertilization.
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Sertoli Cells
Non-gamete cells located in the seminiferous tubules that are designed to support spermatogenesis
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Seminiferous Tubules
Tubules located in the testes where sperm is produced
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Flagellum
The long 'tail' that a sperm uses to propel itself
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Fertilization
The reproductive phase where an ovum is fertilized by sperm to make a zygote
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Sexual Reproduction
When two parents each provide different genes to sexually reproduce offspring
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Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction of a single organism where it uses mitosis to replicate itself
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Gametes
Sex cells that are created by each parent for producing offspring
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Hermaphrodites
Organisms that possess sexual organs characteristic of males as well as those characteristic of females
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Zygote
An ovum that is fertilized
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Ovum
Another word for a female gamete (plural is ova)
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Oogenesis
Female gametes are made during this process
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40 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

When you use the flashcards contained in this set, you'll get a much better understanding of important animal biology topics, including fertilization, reproduction, and oogenesis. You can also explore cards explaining ovum, zygotes, placenta, and flagellum. Brush up on your understanding of different types of plants as well, including vascular and nonvascular plants as well as perennials and biennials. Additionally, the various layers of a plant as well as the function of roots are also covered.

Front
Back
Oogenesis
Female gametes are made during this process
Ovum
Another word for a female gamete (plural is ova)
Zygote
An ovum that is fertilized
Hermaphrodites
Organisms that possess sexual organs characteristic of males as well as those characteristic of females
Gametes
Sex cells that are created by each parent for producing offspring
Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction of a single organism where it uses mitosis to replicate itself
Sexual Reproduction
When two parents each provide different genes to sexually reproduce offspring
Fertilization
The reproductive phase where an ovum is fertilized by sperm to make a zygote
Flagellum
The long 'tail' that a sperm uses to propel itself
Seminiferous Tubules
Tubules located in the testes where sperm is produced
Sertoli Cells
Non-gamete cells located in the seminiferous tubules that are designed to support spermatogenesis
Acrosome
This is the portion of sperm that forms a cap-like covering over the tip of the sperm cell. Its purpose is to penetrate the outermost ovum layers to allow for fertilization.
Placenta
Tissues from both the embryo and the mother that provide support and nutrients to the growing embryo
Chorion
A membrane created by the embryo that develops between the fetus and the mother in the beginning of the pregnancy
Chorionic Villi
Tiny, finger-shaped growths that project off of the chorion, which create a connection between the blood of the mother and the blood of the embyro
Zona Pellucida
Thick, outer layer of extracellular matrix that forms around the ovum as it travels down the fallopian tube
Amniotic Fluid
Fluid found within the amnion that surrounds the developing fetus for protection and development, especially of the arms, legs, and lungs
Yolk Sac
Membrane that surrounds the egg yolk and is responsible for transporting nutrients between the egg yolk and the embryo
Allantois
Membrane that resembles a sac and is responsible for removing embryonic waste
Vascular Plants
Plants that contain the two vascular tissues of xylem and phloem
Nonvascular Plants
Plants that do not have the two vascular tissues xylem and phloem
Xylem
Vascular tissue responsible for transporting water and minerals in plants
Phloem
Vascular tissue responsible for transporting food in plants
Monocot
One-seed leaf plant characterized by long leaves and flower petals grouped into threes, such as corn and palm trees
Dicot
Two-seed leaf plant, such as roses and sunflowers, with flower petals grouped into fours or fives and vein-lined leaves
Gymnosperm
A non-flowering, vascular plant that makes seeds, such as an evergreen tree
Palisade Layer
The plant layer below the upper epidermis where many chloroplasts, which play a key role in photosynthesis, are located
Spongy Layer
The plant layer found below the palisade layer. It is made up of cells that are loosely packed and contains numerous pockets of air.
Upper Epidermis
Layer of cells that is located below the cuticle and on the topside of the leaf that is designed to protect the leaf
Lower Epidermis
Protective layer of plant cells found at the bottom of the leaf
Function of Roots

Support

Food Storage

Taking in water

Root Cap
Outermost, bottom layer of the root that is responsible for protecting other root tissues as the root grows through the soil
Stigma
Portion of the flower that receives pollen so the plant can be fertilized
Corolla
The flower whorl located inside of the calyx where the petals are located
Calyx
Outmost flower whorl that provides protection for the flower and the bud
Whorls
Four distinct layers of a flower
Gynoecium
Deepest, inner whorl of the flower that contains the female parts: carpel, stigma, style, ovary, and ovules
Annuals
Plants that grow for one season and will need to be replanted
Biennials
Plants that have a two-year life cycle and create seeds in their second year
Perennials
Plants that can survive through many different growing seasons, such as trees

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