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Atomic Structure & Properties of Matter Flashcards

Atomic Structure & Properties of Matter Flashcards
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Molecular formulas
Expression of a molecule in terms of the type of elements that make up the molecule and the number of atoms
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Energy levels
The energy needed to have an electron out in orbital
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Energy levels for the valence electrons in oxygen
2
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Valence electrons
Electrons in the outermost energy levels
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Hydrogen bond

A bond between hydrogen and an electronegative atom

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Molecule that hydrogen bonds with water
HF (hydrogen fluoride)
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Element
Pure substance that cannot be broken down into smaller parts, e.g. oxygen
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Robert Millikan
Discovered the charge of an electron
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Ernest Rutherford
Figured out that atoms have a nucleus
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J.J. Thomson
Responsible for discovering the electron
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John Dalton
Stated that matter is made up of atoms that cannot be divided into smaller pieces or destroyed
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Physical properties of covalent bonds
Liquid at room temperature, gaseous at room temperature, have low melting points
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Characteristics of covalent bonds

Atoms in these bonds share valence electrons

Electron pairs are shared between atoms in these bonds

These bonds form because it costs less energy to stay together than to be apart

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Electrons
Molecules that have a negative charge
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Protons
Molecules that have a positive charge
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Ion
An atom that has a charge due to the loss or gain of electrons
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Chemical bonds
When two or more atoms share molecules or electrons with one another
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Polar bond
A chemical bond where atoms have an unequal balance of electrons amongst one another
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Nonpolar bonds
A bond where two atoms share a pair of electrons
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How polar and nonpolar bonds are classified
They are covalent bonds
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42 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

These flashcards were designed to help you learn all you need to know on atomic structure and the properties of matter so you can obtain your goals and move on to more complex topics.

Front
Back
How polar and nonpolar bonds are classified
They are covalent bonds
Nonpolar bonds
A bond where two atoms share a pair of electrons
Polar bond
A chemical bond where atoms have an unequal balance of electrons amongst one another
Chemical bonds
When two or more atoms share molecules or electrons with one another
Ion
An atom that has a charge due to the loss or gain of electrons
Protons
Molecules that have a positive charge
Electrons
Molecules that have a negative charge
Characteristics of covalent bonds

Atoms in these bonds share valence electrons

Electron pairs are shared between atoms in these bonds

These bonds form because it costs less energy to stay together than to be apart

Physical properties of covalent bonds
Liquid at room temperature, gaseous at room temperature, have low melting points
John Dalton
Stated that matter is made up of atoms that cannot be divided into smaller pieces or destroyed
J.J. Thomson
Responsible for discovering the electron
Ernest Rutherford
Figured out that atoms have a nucleus
Robert Millikan
Discovered the charge of an electron
Element
Pure substance that cannot be broken down into smaller parts, e.g. oxygen
Molecule that hydrogen bonds with water
HF (hydrogen fluoride)
Hydrogen bond

A bond between hydrogen and an electronegative atom

Valence electrons
Electrons in the outermost energy levels
Energy levels for the valence electrons in oxygen
2
Energy levels
The energy needed to have an electron out in orbital
Molecular formulas
Expression of a molecule in terms of the type of elements that make up the molecule and the number of atoms
Four states of matter
Gas, liquid, solid and plasma
Gas
Matter that does not have a consistent volume or shape
Liquid

Matter with a definite volume but not a definite shape

Solid
Has a fixed shape and volume
Plasma
Have no fixed volume or shape but electrons are able to move freely
Atomic structure of an isotope
Difference in neutrons that results in nuclear stability
Isotopes
When atoms have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Atomic mass unit (amu)
A unit of mass that is used to show the atomic and molecular weights
Properties of solids
Have a fixed shape, boundaries, volume and density; they are rigid and do not flow
Similar properties between liquids and solids
Both have a fixed volume
Freezing
Change of a substance from a liquid to a solid
Melting
When a substance goes from a solid to liquid
Condensation
When a substance goes from a gas to a liquid
Vaporization
Change of a substance from liquid to gas
Sublimation
When a substance goes from a solid to a gas while skipping the liquid phase
Deposition
The change of a substance from gas to solid, skipping the liquid phase
Change in temperature of water when it goes from a liquid to a solid
It stays the same
Matter
Has mass and volume
Endothermic reaction
The system gains heat as the environment cools down
Exothermic reaction
When the system loses heat as the surroundings heat up
Ionic bond
A chemical bond that is formed when a cation and an anion come together
Formula for mass number (in amu)
Number of protons plus the number of neutrons

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