# Basic Probability & Statistics Flashcards

Basic Probability & Statistics Flashcards
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Median

When arranged in numerical order, the middle value of a data set

If two values in the middle, the median is the average of the two values

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Mean

The average of a data set

To calculate: add together the data set values, and divide by the total number of values

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Find the probability of choosing a vanilla candy then a chocolate candy out of a dish with 10 vanilla, 12 chocolate, and 15 butterscotch candies.

Dependent events

Total number of candies: 10 + 12 + 15 = 37

Probability of choosing vanilla candy: 10/37

Probability of then choosing chocolate candy: 12/36

(10/37) * (12/36) = 120/1332 = 10/111

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Over the course of a week, a man wears sunglasses 5 times and a hat 5 times. He wore a hat and sunglasses together 3 times. Find the probability that the man only wore sunglasses on a day.

Probability of sunglasses - probability of hat and sunglasses = probability of only sunglasses

5/7 - 3/7 = 2/7 = 0.29 = 29%

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Determine the probability of pulling a queen out of a standard deck of cards four times in a row.

Dependent events

Probability of 1st queen = 4/52

P(2nd queen) = 3/51

P(3rd queen) = 2/50

P(4th queen) = 1/49

(4/52) * (3/51) * (2/50) * (1/49) = 24/6,497,400 = 1/270,725

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Determine the probability of rolling a one on a dice three times in a row.

Probability of rolling a one: 1/6

Independent events, so probability = (1/6) * (1/6) * (1/6) = 1/216

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After lunch, a class attends music 25% of the time. On music days, the class plays instruments 40% of the time. Calculate the probability that the class will use instruments after lunch.

P(A and B) = P(A) * P(B|A)

P(A) = P(music class) = 25% = 0.25

P(B|A) = P(instruments in music class) = 40% = 0.40

0.25 * 0.40 = 0.10 = 10%

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Probability

A numerical value that describes the likelihood of an event occurring

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## Flashcard Content Overview

You've probably heard a weatherman say, 'There's a 30% chance of rain today.' When he talks about chance, he's referring to probability. He may also say something like, 'The average amount of rain that has fallen in this month over the past 10 years is 20 inches.' When he talks about average, he's referring to statistics. These flashcards will help you review what probability and statistics are and where you might use them in your everyday life.

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Probability

A numerical value that describes the likelihood of an event occurring

After lunch, a class attends music 25% of the time. On music days, the class plays instruments 40% of the time. Calculate the probability that the class will use instruments after lunch.

P(A and B) = P(A) * P(B|A)

P(A) = P(music class) = 25% = 0.25

P(B|A) = P(instruments in music class) = 40% = 0.40

0.25 * 0.40 = 0.10 = 10%

Determine the probability of rolling a one on a dice three times in a row.

Probability of rolling a one: 1/6

Independent events, so probability = (1/6) * (1/6) * (1/6) = 1/216

Determine the probability of pulling a queen out of a standard deck of cards four times in a row.

Dependent events

Probability of 1st queen = 4/52

P(2nd queen) = 3/51

P(3rd queen) = 2/50

P(4th queen) = 1/49

(4/52) * (3/51) * (2/50) * (1/49) = 24/6,497,400 = 1/270,725

Over the course of a week, a man wears sunglasses 5 times and a hat 5 times. He wore a hat and sunglasses together 3 times. Find the probability that the man only wore sunglasses on a day.

Probability of sunglasses - probability of hat and sunglasses = probability of only sunglasses

5/7 - 3/7 = 2/7 = 0.29 = 29%

Find the probability of choosing a vanilla candy then a chocolate candy out of a dish with 10 vanilla, 12 chocolate, and 15 butterscotch candies.

Dependent events

Total number of candies: 10 + 12 + 15 = 37

Probability of choosing vanilla candy: 10/37

Probability of then choosing chocolate candy: 12/36

(10/37) * (12/36) = 120/1332 = 10/111

Mean

The average of a data set

To calculate: add together the data set values, and divide by the total number of values

Median

When arranged in numerical order, the middle value of a data set

If two values in the middle, the median is the average of the two values

Mode

The value that appears most frequently in a data set

A data set can also be bimodal (2 modes) or can have no mode

Dependent Variable

The condition that changes in an experiment due to another condition being changed

Independent Variable

The condition that is changed or controlled in an experiment

Ordinal Data

Data that cannot be measured but can be ordered and ranked

Nominal Data

Categorical data that is only used to identify objects

Descriptive Statistics

The type of statistics that uses measures of central tendency (like mean, median, and mode) and graphical representations to describe data, show trends, and allow comparisons between data sets

Inferential Statistics

The type of statistics that involves collecting data from a sample of a larger population to make predictions about the entire population

Mutually Exclusive Events

Two events that cannot occur simultaneously, such as rolling a one and a six on a single dice on the same roll

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