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Cell Biology & Processes Flashcards

Cell Biology & Processes Flashcards
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Pinocytosis
A process where small substances and liquids are taken in by a cell
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Phagocytosis
A process where large molecules are engulfed by a cell
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Endocytosis
A cellular ingestion process by which the cell membrane folds inward
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Antiport
An integral membrane protein that allows movement of an ion in one direction while allowing a second ion to move in the opposite direction
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Uniport
An integral membrane protein that allows movement of an ion in one direction
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Sympcort
Integral membrane protein that is responsible for moving two ions in the same direction
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Type of movement that the sodium-potassium pump is classified as
Active transport
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Active transport
Transport that occurs across a concentration gradient and requires energy
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Hypertonic solution
When a cell has more solutes and less water
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Hypotonic solution
When a cell has fewer solutes and more water
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Isotonic solution
Where the concentration of solutes in and out of the cell are the same
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Photosynthesis
Process that converts sunlight energy into food for the plant cells
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Chloroplasts
The site of photosynthesis in a plant cell where sunlight is converted into food
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Cell wall
A protective layer that surrounds the plant cell wall outside the plasma membrane
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Solutes
Substances that dissolve in solvent
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Solvent
The substance in which solutes (other substances) dissolve
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Solution
Mixture of solvent and solute
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Solubility
The maximum amount of a solute that can dissolve in a solvent
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Osmosis
When solvent molecules move across semipermeable membranes
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Diffusion
Spread of molecules from high concentration to low concentration
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64 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

When working through the flashcards in this set, you will refresh your memory on topics such as mitosis, flagella, chromatin and lysosome. Whether you are studying for a big exam or you need help with your homework, these flashcards were designed to help you understand much more about cell biology.

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Diffusion
Spread of molecules from high concentration to low concentration
Osmosis
When solvent molecules move across semipermeable membranes
Solubility
The maximum amount of a solute that can dissolve in a solvent
Solution
Mixture of solvent and solute
Solvent
The substance in which solutes (other substances) dissolve
Solutes
Substances that dissolve in solvent
Cell wall
A protective layer that surrounds the plant cell wall outside the plasma membrane
Chloroplasts
The site of photosynthesis in a plant cell where sunlight is converted into food
Photosynthesis
Process that converts sunlight energy into food for the plant cells
Isotonic solution
Where the concentration of solutes in and out of the cell are the same
Hypotonic solution
When a cell has fewer solutes and more water
Hypertonic solution
When a cell has more solutes and less water
Active transport
Transport that occurs across a concentration gradient and requires energy
Type of movement that the sodium-potassium pump is classified as
Active transport
Sympcort
Integral membrane protein that is responsible for moving two ions in the same direction
Uniport
An integral membrane protein that allows movement of an ion in one direction
Antiport
An integral membrane protein that allows movement of an ion in one direction while allowing a second ion to move in the opposite direction
Endocytosis
A cellular ingestion process by which the cell membrane folds inward
Phagocytosis
A process where large molecules are engulfed by a cell
Pinocytosis
A process where small substances and liquids are taken in by a cell
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Uses integral membrane proteins to target and recognize specific substrates
Exocytosis
When a cell dispels substances out of the cell through a vesicle that fuses with the cell membrane
Lysosome
A structure within a cell that is responsible for digestion
Nucleus
Structure of the cell that contains all of the genetic material
Nuclear envelope
Double membrane surrounding the nucleus that has an outer and inner membrane
Nuclear pores
Small openings that are present in the nuclear envelope where the two membranes come together
Chromatin
DNA that is packaged and stored for later with the assistance of specialized proteins
Nuclear lamina
Helps keep the shape of the nucleus by attaching to the envelope and chromatin
Endomembrane system
Section of the cell that works together to make, label and send out proteins and molecules
Lumen
Inner compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Compartment of smooth tubes that are free of ribosomes
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Compartments of membranes that are complete with sacs filled with ribosomes
Golgi apparatus
Shipping center of a cell that has compartments with flattened sacs
Cytoskeleton
Network of fibers and it provides support for a cell
Microtubules
Largest fibers found in the cytoskeleton
Flagella
Long whips that drive the movement of a cell
Intermediate filaments
Medium sized fibers of the cytoskeleton made up of several fibrous proteins twisted together in a rope-like fashion
Microfilaments
Thinnest fibers of the cytoskeleton, composed of actin protein
Classification of mitosis and meiosis
Cell division
Prophase
Stage where chromosomes condense and a spindle is formed
Prometaphase
When the nuclear membrane is broken down and centrosomes move to each side of the cell
Metaphase
Stage where chromosomes are all aligned in order on the metaphase plate
Anaphase
When a protein called separase begins to separate the chromosomes, also called sister chromatids
Telophase
Stage where the spindle is broken down; the final stage of mitosis
The number of chromosomes that make up the human genome
23
Genome
Entire DNA in a cell
Histones
Proteins that were made to help DNA be packaged in a timely and beneficial manner
Nucleosomes
Made up of DNA that is coiled around a core of histones
Gene
A single piece of DNA that is able to code for RNA
S phase
Stage of the cell cycle where chromosomes are replicated & chromatids are made
G1
Phase of the cell cycle that promotes cell growth and cell metabolism
G2
Stage of the cell cycle that allows for protein synthesis and the production of proteins needed for cells to divide
M Phase
Phase of the cell cycle where mitosis occurs
Mitosis
Stage of the cell cycle during which cell division occurs
Function of the mitotic spindle
Responsible for keeping sister chromatids apart in a cell in order to form daughter cells
Contractile ring
What an animal cell uses to finish cell division
Cell plate
What a plant cell uses during cell division
Meiosis
Process of cell division that's responsible for making gametes that are used for sexual reproduction
The steps in Meiosis I
In order: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I and Telophase I
mRNA
Messenger RNA that gives genetic information to ribosomes
tRNA
Transfer RNA that carries amino acids to ribosomes
rRNA
Ribosomal RNA that is responsible for manufacturing protein in the cell
Telophase I stage of meiosis
Stage where chromosomes decondense
Mitochondria
Location where cellular respiration occurs

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