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Cell Structure & Organelles Flashcards

Cell Structure & Organelles Flashcards
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Cytoskeleton

The 'skeleton' of the cell

Important for holding the shape of a cell, allowing for movement, and holding organelles in place

Made up of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments

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Endomembrane System

Made up of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus

Acts like the post office of the cell by 'packing,' 'addressing,' and 'delivering' substances around and out of the cell

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Structure of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Found by the nucleus and arranged as tubes of membrane

Inside is known as the lumen

Two types: rough ER (contains ribosomes) and smooth ER (builds steroids and lipids)

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Ribosome

Small structure found in the cytoplasm and on the endoplasmic reticulum

Made up of a large and a small subunit

The site of translation (protein building)

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Nuclear Envelope
A structure made up of an inner and outer (double) membrane that surrounds and protects the nucleus
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Transcription

The process of making an RNA copy out of a stretch of DNA

Takes place in the nucleus

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Flashcard Content Overview

Have you ever looked at anything living under a microscope? If your microscope is powerful enough, you should be able to see that all living things are made up of tiny building blocks called cells. If you are able to find a more powerful microscope, you might be able to see that inside all these cells are even tinier structures called organelles. What do these organelles look like? What do they do? Do they work together or independently? Do all cells have organelles? This flashcard set will help you review those tiny structures that make cells work.

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Transcription

The process of making an RNA copy out of a stretch of DNA

Takes place in the nucleus

Nuclear Envelope
A structure made up of an inner and outer (double) membrane that surrounds and protects the nucleus
Ribosome

Small structure found in the cytoplasm and on the endoplasmic reticulum

Made up of a large and a small subunit

The site of translation (protein building)

Structure of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Found by the nucleus and arranged as tubes of membrane

Inside is known as the lumen

Two types: rough ER (contains ribosomes) and smooth ER (builds steroids and lipids)

Endomembrane System

Made up of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus

Acts like the post office of the cell by 'packing,' 'addressing,' and 'delivering' substances around and out of the cell

Cytoskeleton

The 'skeleton' of the cell

Important for holding the shape of a cell, allowing for movement, and holding organelles in place

Made up of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments

Mitochondria
Organelles surrounded by outer and inner membranes that are responsible for the creation of energy from food through the process of cellular respiration
Chloroplast

A cell organelle only found in plant cells where photosynthesis occurs

Made up of thylakoids (stacked together into grana) found within a liquid chamber called the stroma

Cell Wall

Found on the outside of plant cells

Serves as a protective barrier

Controls the transport of materials

Made primarily of the sugar cellulose

Eukaryotic Cell

Composed of a nucleus (to store the cell's DNA) as well as other membrane-bound organelles, such as the mitochondria

Organisms with these types of cells are called eukaryotes

Prokaryotic Cell

Does not have a nucleus or other organelles with membranes

Classified as either bacteria or archaea

Organisms with these types of cells are called prokaryotes

Bacteriophage
A type of virus that can only use bacteria as a host

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