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Cellular Nervous System Flashcards

Cellular Nervous System Flashcards
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Synapse
The space between an axon and its target cell where neurotransmitters are released
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Dendrite
The part of a neuron that accepts electrochemical messages from other cells and moves them toward the neuron cell body
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Axon
The part of a neuron that transmits electrochemical messages to other cells after moving them away from the neuron cell body
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Neuron
The specialized cell of the nervous system responsible for sending electrochemical messages from the nervous system to the rest of the body
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Negative Feedback

Occurs when the output of a process prevents the process from making additional output

Example: increase in blood pressure by sympathetic nervous system inhibits sympathetic nervous system

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Positive Feedback

Occurs when the output of a process stimulates the production of more input

Example: an infant's suckling of milk stimulates the production of more milk

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Homeostasis
The process by which the body maintains a stable internal environment by regulating things like hydration, ion concentration, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, pH, and body temperature
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Function of the Nervous System
Collect, process/interpret, and respond to sensory input from the body and the environment
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How the Parasympathetic Nervous System Affects the Body
Causes bronchiole, pupil, and bladder contraction; inhibition of epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion; decreased heart rate; and promotes bile production and digestive activity
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Parasympathetic Nervous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for the 'rest and digest' response

Helps the body relax and recover after a period of intense physical activity

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How the Sympathetic Nervous System Affects the Body
Causes bronchiole and pupil dilation, epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion, increased heart rate and glucose release, bladder relaxation, and digestive activity inhibition
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Sympathetic Nervous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for the fight-or-flight response

Helps the body get ready for intense physical activity

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Flashcard Content Overview

These flashcards review the nervous system at the cellular level. What does that mean? The brain, spinal cord, and nerves are actually made up of many specialize cells that help receive and send messages between the nervous system and the rest of the body. Use these flashcards to review the structure of these cells and how they work.

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Sympathetic Nervous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for the fight-or-flight response

Helps the body get ready for intense physical activity

How the Sympathetic Nervous System Affects the Body
Causes bronchiole and pupil dilation, epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion, increased heart rate and glucose release, bladder relaxation, and digestive activity inhibition
Parasympathetic Nervous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for the 'rest and digest' response

Helps the body relax and recover after a period of intense physical activity

How the Parasympathetic Nervous System Affects the Body
Causes bronchiole, pupil, and bladder contraction; inhibition of epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion; decreased heart rate; and promotes bile production and digestive activity
Function of the Nervous System
Collect, process/interpret, and respond to sensory input from the body and the environment
Homeostasis
The process by which the body maintains a stable internal environment by regulating things like hydration, ion concentration, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, pH, and body temperature
Positive Feedback

Occurs when the output of a process stimulates the production of more input

Example: an infant's suckling of milk stimulates the production of more milk

Negative Feedback

Occurs when the output of a process prevents the process from making additional output

Example: increase in blood pressure by sympathetic nervous system inhibits sympathetic nervous system

Neuron
The specialized cell of the nervous system responsible for sending electrochemical messages from the nervous system to the rest of the body
Axon
The part of a neuron that transmits electrochemical messages to other cells after moving them away from the neuron cell body
Dendrite
The part of a neuron that accepts electrochemical messages from other cells and moves them toward the neuron cell body
Synapse
The space between an axon and its target cell where neurotransmitters are released
Neurotransmitter
Chemical signaling molecules passed at a synapse between a neuron and its target cell
Afferent Neurons

The neurons found in sensory organs that send messages to the central nervous system in response to a stimulus, such as temperature, pain, and pressure

Also known as sensory neurons

Efferent Neurons

The neurons that send messages away from the central nervous system to cause an action, such as motion, in the body

Also known as motor neurons

Myelin

The special material made by Schwann cells that surrounds some neurons to increase their electrical conduction speed

Is attacked by the immune system in people with multiple sclerosis

Schwann Cell
A specialized cell in the peripheral nervous system responsible for producing myelin for myelin sheaths
Node of Ranvier

Unmyelinated gaps between myelinated sections of an axon

Allows for an action potential to 'jump' from node to node, leading to faster conduction speeds

Action Potential

The electrical signal that moves down the axon of a neuron

Occurs due to a voltage change across a portion of an axon's plasma membrane that is unmyelinated

Glial Cell

Also known as neuroglia

The specialized cells of the nervous system responsible for forming myelin, destroying pathogens, and providing structural and nutritional support for neurons

Meissner's Corpuscle

The mechanoreceptor found in the skin responsible for recognizing light touch and vibration

Deactivates quickly, allowing for the ability to rapidly ignore the feeling of things like clothes

Proprioceptors
Receptors in the inner ear, tendons, joints, and muscles that help the body sense its position and movement, allowing you to keep yourself upright in the absence of visual or auditory stimuli
Muscle Spindles
A type of proprioceptive mechanoreceptor found in skeletal muscle that detects changes in muscle length to provide information about how far away a limb is to your body
Tendon Organs
A type of proprioceptor found at the connection between a muscle and a tendon that detects muscle tension and sends the information to the central nervous system

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