Chemical Bonds Flashcards

Chemical Bonds Flashcards
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Carbonyl group
Carbon double-bonded to oxygen (C double-bonded to O)
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Chemical formula/symbols for a carboxyl group in an organic molecule
-COOH
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Chemical formula/symbols for a hydroxyl group in an organic molecule
-OH
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Name for organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl group
Alcohol
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Define the term: Organic compounds
Compounds containing carbon (C) atoms
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Define the term: Inorganic compounds
Compounds without carbon (C) atoms
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Number of hybrid orbitals in a molecule
Orbital hybridization theory tells us this will be same as the number of regular orbitals that produced the hybrid ones.
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How metal atoms bond with themselves
All the valence electrons float around all the atoms in a cloud or sea
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How to check your work when drawing a Lewis dot structure for a compound
Make sure that each atom in the compound is surrounded by exactly 8 electron-dots (4 pairs).
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How to represent a bond in a Lewis dot structure for a compound
Draw 1 pair of dots between the chemical symbols to show a single bond, 2 pairs of dots to show a double bond, or 3 pairs to show a triple bond.
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How to draw a Lewis structure (aka Lewis diagram) for an element
Draw dots around the element symbol: as many as the element has valence electrons. Start with one dot at the top, left, right, & bottom. Make pairs if you have more than 4 dots.
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Covalent bond
Formed when two atoms share electrons so they can both fill their valence shells.
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Ionic bond
Formed by atoms that give away and take electrons, become charged, and then are attracted to one another.
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What atoms with 5, 6, or 7 valence electrons 'want' in an ionic bond
To get electrons from another atom
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What atoms with 1, 2, or 3 valence electrons 'want' in an ionic bond
To give away their electrons
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The octet rule
Atoms will bond in ways that allow them to fill up their outer shells with exactly 8 electrons. They bond by giving, taking or sharing electrons.
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Flashcard Content Overview

These flashcards help students memorize the difference between ionic, covalent and metallic bonds. Students learn about the octet rule and valence electrons to understand their importance in bonding. You can discover key rules for Lewis dot structures, including structures for polyatomic ions and resonance structures. Other flashcards cover rules for writing chemical formulas and naming the resultant compound. Some of the flashcards explain core terms from organic chemistry, like ketone, aldehyde and saturated hydrocarbon.

Front
Back
The octet rule
Atoms will bond in ways that allow them to fill up their outer shells with exactly 8 electrons. They bond by giving, taking or sharing electrons.
What atoms with 1, 2, or 3 valence electrons 'want' in an ionic bond
To give away their electrons
What atoms with 5, 6, or 7 valence electrons 'want' in an ionic bond
To get electrons from another atom
Ionic bond
Formed by atoms that give away and take electrons, become charged, and then are attracted to one another.
Covalent bond
Formed when two atoms share electrons so they can both fill their valence shells.
How to draw a Lewis structure (aka Lewis diagram) for an element
Draw dots around the element symbol: as many as the element has valence electrons. Start with one dot at the top, left, right, & bottom. Make pairs if you have more than 4 dots.
How to represent a bond in a Lewis dot structure for a compound
Draw 1 pair of dots between the chemical symbols to show a single bond, 2 pairs of dots to show a double bond, or 3 pairs to show a triple bond.
How to check your work when drawing a Lewis dot structure for a compound
Make sure that each atom in the compound is surrounded by exactly 8 electron-dots (4 pairs).
How metal atoms bond with themselves
All the valence electrons float around all the atoms in a cloud or sea
Number of hybrid orbitals in a molecule
Orbital hybridization theory tells us this will be same as the number of regular orbitals that produced the hybrid ones.
Define the term: Inorganic compounds
Compounds without carbon (C) atoms
Define the term: Organic compounds
Compounds containing carbon (C) atoms
Name for organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl group
Alcohol
Chemical formula/symbols for a hydroxyl group in an organic molecule
-OH
Chemical formula/symbols for a carboxyl group in an organic molecule
-COOH
Carbonyl group
Carbon double-bonded to oxygen (C double-bonded to O)
Define the term: Ketone
An organic compound with a carbonyl group that's between two other carbon atoms
Define the term: Aldehyde
An organic compound with a carbonyl group whose carbon atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom
Types of atom that usually form ionic compounds
A metal atom with a non-metal atom
The electron change that a Group 2 atom 'wants'
Losing two electrons to become a 2+ ion.
Least Common Multiple method for writing ionic compound formulas
Write the symbols & charges of the two atoms. Find the least common multiple (LCM) of those numbers. Determine how many of each atom would make its charges add up to the LCM.
Drop-And-Swap method for writing ionic compound formulas.
Write the symbols and charges for the cation and anion. The charge on each atom (ignoring the + or - sign) is the number you need of the OTHER atom.
Two factors that make lattice energy greater (in ionic compounds)
When the atoms are smaller. When the atoms have greater charge.
Dipole moment
When dipoles from individual bonds cause an uneven distribution of charge across a molecule
The element that goes first in a simple compound's name
The element that's most leftward on the Periodic Table (smallest group number)
The element that always gets a number prefix in a simple binary compound name.
The second element named
Number of electrons in a Lewis dot structure for a polyatomic ion with a negative charge
The number of valence electrons that each atom has, plus as many more as the number of the charge
When you would add double or triple bonds to a Lewis dot structure
If there aren't enough electrons to fill all the atoms' outer shells with only single bonds
Number of resonance structures in a molecule
The number of different ways to assign double vs. single bonds in a Lewis dot structure
Define the term: Ion-dipole force
An attraction between a polar molecule and an ion that isn't part of the molecule.
What makes a stronger bond between two atoms
Having a double or triple bond instead of a single bond
Define the term: saturated hydrocarbon
A molecule with just C and H atoms, with just single bonds and no ring shapes, so it has as many H atoms as possible

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