Chemical Solutions Flashcards

Chemical Solutions Flashcards
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Type of substances that are typically insoluble in water, and why
Non-polar substances, because water is polar
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Define the term: nonelectrolyte
A substance that is soluble in water, but it doesn't break into ions, so it doesn't conduct electricity. Typically covalent compounds.
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Define the term: electrolyte
A substance that separates into ions when it dissolves in water
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Define the term: solubility
The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature
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The equation for Raoult's law, and what each term means
P(solution) = X(solvent)*Po(solvent.) P(solution) = vapor pressure of solution. X(solvent) = (moles solvent / (moles solvent + moles solute)). Po(solvent) = vapor pressure of just solvent.
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Necessary units & abbreviation for molality
Units: moles solute / kilograms of solvent. Abbreviation: lowercase m
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Necessary units & abbreviation for molarity.
Units: Moles solute / Liters of solution. Abbreviation: capital M.
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How to calculate a dilution: from concentrated solution at a high molarity, to a diluted solution at a lower molarity.
M1*V1=M2*V2. M1 = Molarity of the original solution. M2 = Molarity of the diluted solution. V2 = desired amount of diluted solution. Solve for V1 (how much original solution you need)
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Flashcard Content Overview

Do you wonder why we sprinkle salt on roads in winter? Find out what property of solutions inspired this practice with these flashcards. This handy study tool helps you prepare for questions involving Molarity and molality, including dilution calculations. You can also learn about Raoult's law. You can test your memory of what factors make a substance dissolve into solution more or less easily. These cards define colligative properties and explain what they have to do with the freezing point of liquids.

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How to calculate a dilution: from concentrated solution at a high molarity, to a diluted solution at a lower molarity.
M1*V1=M2*V2. M1 = Molarity of the original solution. M2 = Molarity of the diluted solution. V2 = desired amount of diluted solution. Solve for V1 (how much original solution you need)
Necessary units & abbreviation for molarity.
Units: Moles solute / Liters of solution. Abbreviation: capital M.
Necessary units & abbreviation for molality
Units: moles solute / kilograms of solvent. Abbreviation: lowercase m
The equation for Raoult's law, and what each term means
P(solution) = X(solvent)*Po(solvent.) P(solution) = vapor pressure of solution. X(solvent) = (moles solvent / (moles solvent + moles solute)). Po(solvent) = vapor pressure of just solvent.
Define the term: solubility
The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature
Define the term: electrolyte
A substance that separates into ions when it dissolves in water
Define the term: nonelectrolyte
A substance that is soluble in water, but it doesn't break into ions, so it doesn't conduct electricity. Typically covalent compounds.
Type of substances that are typically insoluble in water, and why
Non-polar substances, because water is polar
Factors that make a substance dissolve more easily
Higher temperature, breaking the substance into smaller pieces, using a solvent that matches the substance (polar vs. non-polar).
Which molecules from the solute go into solution
The molecules on the surface area
Define the term: colligative properties
Properties of a solvent that depend on how much solute is present, but it doesn't matter what type of solute
How a solvent's freezing point changes when a solute is added
Adding solute to a solvent lowers its freezing point. The solution can stay liquid in colder temperatures than the plain solvent can.
Formula for freezing point depression, and what each term means.
Freezing point change = -i * Kf * m. i = how many particles a solute molecule dissolves into. Kf = a freezing point depression constant, unique to each solvent. m = molality of solution.
How to use the freezing point depression formula to find the solute's molar mass in grams per mole.
Fill in the temperature change, i term, & Kf constant. Use algebra to get m alone on one side, to find the molality. Use the formula for molality to find the moles of solute.
Define the term: osmotic pressure
The minimum pressure that will prevent osmosis (e.g. prevent solvent particles from flowing across a semipermeable membrane to the side where there's more solute).
Define the term: vapor pressure
The pressure of the gas above the surface of a liquid that's at equilibrium. Adding solute molecules reduces vapor pressure, because fewer solvent molecules at the surface escape into the air.

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