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Contemporary Trends in Psychology Flashcards

Contemporary Trends in Psychology Flashcards
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Gordon Allport: Secondary Traits

These traits are variable and have the smallest effect on personality. According to Allport, they are usually affected by your environment.

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Gordon Allport: Central Traits

Allport asserted that these traits worked together to form the personalities of most people.

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Gordon Allport: Cardinal Traits

According to Allport, these traits shape our personalities and exert a lot of power over our behaviors, feelings and thoughts.

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George Miller: Chunking

This is the process of grouping single bits of information together so that they are easier to store in short-term memory. This is especially helpful when trying to memorize a lot of information.

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Evolutionary Psychology

This branch of psychology looks at how conditions in the past impact the way we think and act today. It draws on the concept of natural selection from Charles Darwin.

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Ideal Self

This refers to the person that an individual wants to be.

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Actual (Real) Self

This term refers to the way others see us.

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Perceived Self

We use this term when talking about the way we see ourselves.

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Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Esteem Needs

Individuals can satisfy these needs by achieving prestige and having healthy self-esteem.

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Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Social Needs

The needs that correlate to the desire of feeling loved and belonging to a group.

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Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Safety Needs

These needs are fulfilled when we have stability, laws, and protection.

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Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Physical Needs

These are needs that deal with our physiology. Water, food, and shelter satisfy these needs.

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Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Ranking by Priority

Physical needs

Safety needs

Social needs

Esteem needs

Self-actualization needs

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Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

This ranks human needs based on priority. The needs at the bottom must be fulfilled before higher needs can be satisfied.

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29 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

You can access this set of flashcards when you're ready to review the work of the following individuals:

  • Abraham Maslow
  • George Miller
  • Gordon Allport
  • Jean Piaget
  • Albert Ellis
  • Donald Meichenbaum

Additionally, you'll be able to focus on sociobiology, behaviorism, cognitive psychology, humanism and evolutionary psychology.

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Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

This ranks human needs based on priority. The needs at the bottom must be fulfilled before higher needs can be satisfied.

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Ranking by Priority

Physical needs

Safety needs

Social needs

Esteem needs

Self-actualization needs

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Physical Needs

These are needs that deal with our physiology. Water, food, and shelter satisfy these needs.

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Safety Needs

These needs are fulfilled when we have stability, laws, and protection.

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Social Needs

The needs that correlate to the desire of feeling loved and belonging to a group.

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Esteem Needs

Individuals can satisfy these needs by achieving prestige and having healthy self-esteem.

Perceived Self

We use this term when talking about the way we see ourselves.

Actual (Real) Self

This term refers to the way others see us.

Ideal Self

This refers to the person that an individual wants to be.

Evolutionary Psychology

This branch of psychology looks at how conditions in the past impact the way we think and act today. It draws on the concept of natural selection from Charles Darwin.

George Miller: Chunking

This is the process of grouping single bits of information together so that they are easier to store in short-term memory. This is especially helpful when trying to memorize a lot of information.

Gordon Allport: Cardinal Traits

According to Allport, these traits shape our personalities and exert a lot of power over our behaviors, feelings and thoughts.

Gordon Allport: Central Traits

Allport asserted that these traits worked together to form the personalities of most people.

Gordon Allport: Secondary Traits

These traits are variable and have the smallest effect on personality. According to Allport, they are usually affected by your environment.

Humanism

A branch of psychology rooted in the philosophies of the Renaissance and classical periods. It focuses on free will and the importance of self-realization.

Behaviorism

A way of looking at psychology that focused only on actions, disregarding the importance of memory, emotion, and thought.

Carl Roger's Person-Centered Therapeutic Conditions

Unconditional positive regard

Empathic understanding

Congruence

Jean Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development: Preoperational

Children at this stage of development begin using the basics of logic and reason, but they are still largely illogical. This stage usually occurs between the ages 2-7 and includes egocentrism.

Jean Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development: Formal Operational

The final stage of cognitive development, individuals at this stage are capable of solving complex cause and effect problems.

Jean Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development: Concrete Operational

Children between the ages of 7-14 are usually in this stage of development. They understand conservation and reversibility.

Jean Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development: Sensorimotor

The first stage of cognitive development. Children in this stage are preverbal.

Jean Piaget

A Swiss psychologist who developed stages of cognitive development. He also asserted that children used accommodation and assimilation in order to learn.

Jean Piaget: Theory of Cognitive Development

This theory tells us that children develop in cognitive stages and that interaction with the environment is important during this development. It also states that kids learn actively and eagerly.

Sociobiology

This branch of psychology was first developed in the 1970s. It attempts to offer explanations for human behavior that is based on evolution and natural selection.

Cognitive Psychology: Albert Ellis

This man contributed to the development of cognitive psychology with his work on rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT).

Cognitive Psychology: Donald Meichenbaum

One of the men who helped contribute to cognitive psychology by developing cognitive behavior therapy (CBT).

Cognitive Psychology: Cognitive Distortion

In cognitive psychology, we use this term to refer to misinterpretations or assumptions that are in some way faulty.

Cognitive Psychology: Irrational Belief

Cognitive psychology holds this to be a belief that can't be supported rationally and that lacks a foundation in fact.

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Self-Actualization Needs

These needs are those met while working on achieving your fullest capabilities.

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