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Developmental Psychology Flashcards

Developmental Psychology Flashcards
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Nature vs. Nurture
This debate greatly influences a lot of the studies associated with developmental psychology.
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Developmental Psychology
A type of psychology that's concerned with how people change over the course of their lives. Developmental psychologists are often interested in prenatal and infant development.
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Examples of Instinctive Knowledge in Babies
Shutting their eyes when faced with a bright light
Avoiding sharp objects
Grasping objects
Rooting reflex
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Visual Cliff Experiment
Used to determine if infants could recognize depth and if they would attempt to crawl over a cliff if encouraged.
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Instinct and Attachment
Primary factors in the development of infants.
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Harry and Margaret Harlow
Psychologists who were interested in determining the value of love in the development of living creatures. They conducted an experiment with monkeys.
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Integrity and Despair
The conflict between integrity and despair defines late adulthood in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.
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Intimacy and Isolation
Individuals in the young adult stage of Erikson's psychosocial development struggle with a conflict between these factors.
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Autonomy and Shame
These factors are in conflict during Erikson's muscular-anal stage of psychosocial development.
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Erik Erikson
A psychologist who worked on a theory of psychosocial development that involved eight stages of contrary pairs of behavior. Erikson believed that formulating our identity is a lifelong process.
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Latency Stage of Development
Erikson viewed this as the last stage of psychosocial development to occur in childhood. In this stage, people deal with the conflict between industry and inferiority.
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Oral-Sensory Stage of Development
The first stage of psychosocial development according to Erikson. This stage deals with the conflict between trust and mistrust.
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Accommodation
Takes place when an individual adapts their concept of a given object to be more exact, such as realizing that not everything that drives on the road is a car.
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Assimilation
The process of placing a new object into a category of objects that is already established, such as understanding that since a terrier is a dog, poodles and retrievers are also dogs.
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29 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

The work of psychologists such as Piaget, Harlow, Kohlberg, and Erikson is addressed by these flashcards. You'll find cards that deal with prenatal and childhood development as well as parenting styles. Additionally, you'll be able to review the process involved in developing morality.

Front
Back
Assimilation
The process of placing a new object into a category of objects that is already established, such as understanding that since a terrier is a dog, poodles and retrievers are also dogs.
Accommodation
Takes place when an individual adapts their concept of a given object to be more exact, such as realizing that not everything that drives on the road is a car.
Oral-Sensory Stage of Development
The first stage of psychosocial development according to Erikson. This stage deals with the conflict between trust and mistrust.
Latency Stage of Development
Erikson viewed this as the last stage of psychosocial development to occur in childhood. In this stage, people deal with the conflict between industry and inferiority.
Erik Erikson
A psychologist who worked on a theory of psychosocial development that involved eight stages of contrary pairs of behavior. Erikson believed that formulating our identity is a lifelong process.
Autonomy and Shame
These factors are in conflict during Erikson's muscular-anal stage of psychosocial development.
Intimacy and Isolation
Individuals in the young adult stage of Erikson's psychosocial development struggle with a conflict between these factors.
Integrity and Despair
The conflict between integrity and despair defines late adulthood in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.
Harry and Margaret Harlow
Psychologists who were interested in determining the value of love in the development of living creatures. They conducted an experiment with monkeys.
Instinct and Attachment
Primary factors in the development of infants.
Visual Cliff Experiment
Used to determine if infants could recognize depth and if they would attempt to crawl over a cliff if encouraged.
Examples of Instinctive Knowledge in Babies
Shutting their eyes when faced with a bright light
Avoiding sharp objects
Grasping objects
Rooting reflex
Developmental Psychology
A type of psychology that's concerned with how people change over the course of their lives. Developmental psychologists are often interested in prenatal and infant development.
Nature vs. Nurture
This debate greatly influences a lot of the studies associated with developmental psychology.
Continuities in Development
Factors in people that stay the same throughout their lives. These continuities are of great interest to developmental psychologists.
Pre-Conventional Moral Development
The two stages at this level of Kohlberg's moral development theory are defined by individuals acting in moral ways in order to avoid being punished and to get what they want.
Conventional Moral Development
This level of Kohlberg's moral development theory includes two stages. People at this level are concerned with how others view them and helping society function.
Post-Conventional Moral Development
The last level of Kohlberg's moral development theory. This level includes two stages which not everyone reaches. People at this level focus on doing good and upholding ethical principles.
Lawrence Kohlberg
A psychologist who studied the moral development of children. He developed a theory of moral development that includes three levels, each with two stages.
Authoritarian Parenting Style
The authoritarian style of parenting is characterized by parents who are exacting of their child but not sensitive to what the child wants.
Authoritative Parenting Style
Authoritative parents try to set responsible demands on their children but are also responsive to the needs of their children.
Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development
The first stage in Piaget's cognitive development model. Children from 0-2 are in this stage and the focus is on object permanence.
Preoperational Stage of Cognitive Development
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development. Children who are between the ages of 2-7 are in this stage, and they develop logic skills.
Concrete Operational Stage of Cognitive Development
The third stage in Piaget's model for cognitive development encompasses children from ages 7-11. Their logical thinking increases to their understanding of the principle of conservation.
Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development
The fourth and final stage of cognitive development for Piaget, covering children from 11 years old and onward. Abstract reasoning develops at this stage.
Jean Piaget
A psychologist who worked to create a model of cognitive development in children that included four stages.
Prenatal Development Stages
Egg
Zygote
Embryo
Fetus
Embryo
At this stage of prenatal development, differentiation of cells begins to occur. After nine weeks, the embryo develops enough to be termed a fetus.
Teratogen
The term teratogen refers to substances, such as some prescribed drugs, radiation, alcohol, and various chemicals, that can disrupt prenatal development.

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