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Early North American Civilizations & Colonies Flashcards

Early North American Civilizations & Colonies Flashcards
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Roanoke: first English settlement in North America

The first attempt was incomplete. After arriving to a small island off North Carolina (Roanoke), conflict the with Natives led the colonists to head back to England, missing the supply ship.

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Dutch disinterest in North America
Few Dutch citizens were motivated to leave their homes to participate in the New World fur trade since they were already wealthy and their land was generally at peace.
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The capture of the Inca emperor Atahualpa

Pizarro capitalized on the foolish decision of Atahualpa to not attack his people and kidnapped him. After holding him for ransom, the Spanish killed Atahualpa and overthrew the Incan empire.

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Cultural characteristics of Native American tribes

The women of many of these tribes did all of the work with crops, while the men primarily hunted and fished. Many of the tribal groups operated as hunter-gatherers.

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Classes Within the Encomienda System
1. Peninsulares; born in Spain, 2.Creoles; of pure Spanish blood, but born in the colonies rather than in Spain 3. Mestizos and Mulattos, 4. Slaves
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Encomienda

A system that provides the labor for the hacienda, or plantation. The Encomienda system granted people as labor to those given land in the Spanish colonies.

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Three theories of how people first inhabited the Americas

Bering Land Bridge, Atlantic Theory (crossed the Atlantic), and Oceania Theory (crossed the Pacific). The early inhabitants of America moved through the East, most likely from Asia or Polynesia.

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The Olmec

The first great civilization of Mesoamerica. They developed the first written language and numbering system and served as a major influence to the other cultures that later developed.

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Mesoamerican civilizations

Early advanced civilizations of Mexico and Central (or 'middle' derived from 'meso') America. Noteworthy Mesoamerican people groups were the Olmec, the Maya, and the Aztec.

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Motivations of the Europeans to explore the New World

Glory, God and Gold. The Glory of conquering new land; For God, in an effort to convert more people to Christianity; And for Gold, in hopes of discovering untapped gold and riches.

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The Columbian Exchange

The flow of ideas, people, plants, animals, technology, and disease that took place because of Columbus's discovery of the New World.

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22 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

Have you ever wondered about when America was really first discovered? Or how people arrived on the continent in the first place? Take a step back in time and discover North and Middle America's earliest roots and discovery that enticed European cultures to travel the seas in hopes of finding new land and wealth. Learn about the cultural influences Europe had on the Native American tribes, the power struggle and conquests of the Mesoamerican peoples like the Inca and Maya, and the effects the European travelers had on the native people that would later be referred to as the Columbian Exchange.

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The Columbian Exchange

The flow of ideas, people, plants, animals, technology, and disease that took place because of Columbus's discovery of the New World.

Motivations of the Europeans to explore the New World

Glory, God and Gold. The Glory of conquering new land; For God, in an effort to convert more people to Christianity; And for Gold, in hopes of discovering untapped gold and riches.

Mesoamerican civilizations

Early advanced civilizations of Mexico and Central (or 'middle' derived from 'meso') America. Noteworthy Mesoamerican people groups were the Olmec, the Maya, and the Aztec.

The Olmec

The first great civilization of Mesoamerica. They developed the first written language and numbering system and served as a major influence to the other cultures that later developed.

Three theories of how people first inhabited the Americas

Bering Land Bridge, Atlantic Theory (crossed the Atlantic), and Oceania Theory (crossed the Pacific). The early inhabitants of America moved through the East, most likely from Asia or Polynesia.

Encomienda

A system that provides the labor for the hacienda, or plantation. The Encomienda system granted people as labor to those given land in the Spanish colonies.

Classes Within the Encomienda System
1. Peninsulares; born in Spain, 2.Creoles; of pure Spanish blood, but born in the colonies rather than in Spain 3. Mestizos and Mulattos, 4. Slaves
Cultural characteristics of Native American tribes

The women of many of these tribes did all of the work with crops, while the men primarily hunted and fished. Many of the tribal groups operated as hunter-gatherers.

The capture of the Inca emperor Atahualpa

Pizarro capitalized on the foolish decision of Atahualpa to not attack his people and kidnapped him. After holding him for ransom, the Spanish killed Atahualpa and overthrew the Incan empire.

Dutch disinterest in North America
Few Dutch citizens were motivated to leave their homes to participate in the New World fur trade since they were already wealthy and their land was generally at peace.
Roanoke: first English settlement in North America

The first attempt was incomplete. After arriving to a small island off North Carolina (Roanoke), conflict the with Natives led the colonists to head back to England, missing the supply ship.

French motivations in the New World

France made three trips to North America in hopes of discovering the Northwest Passage and gold.

Indentured servants in the New World

First brought over the by the Dutch, these servants agreed to work for seven years and would then be freed. Eventually, they were replaced by slaves.

Mayflower Compact

The democratic government that acknowledged the king and God, but also consent of the governed, or letting people voluntarily agree to allow the government to have authority over them.

Quakers and Pennsylvania

The Quaker faith wasn't popular in England or in America. After being imprisoned for his faith, William Penn traveled to the New World to create a colony for Quakers named Pennsylvania.

Primary motivation for the Jamestown settlement

Finding gold.

Main issues of the Jamestown colonists

The tide carried in water that was undrinkable and the area was filled with mosquitoes carrying malaria. A drought had inhibited crop growth and the settlement was also plagued by Indian attacks.

Jamestown's brown gold

Tobacco-- the crop that is said to have saved the settlers. Tobacco was in great demand and Jamestown was booming from its abundance.

Mitigating the labor shortage in Jamestown

Tobacco was very labor-intensive which resulted in a labor shortage. The colony then employed indentured servants to work for 7 years in exchange for land.

Bacon's Rebellion

Nathaniel Bacon organized a militia to take revenge on the Indians for their attacks. They were ordered to stop, but Bacon continued in rebellion and trashed the governor's home.

Colonization in Maryland

While people settled in VA for wealth, and religious freedom in Massachusetts, a civil war drove out Puritans from the North and led Cecil Calvert to start a colony for the Catholics: Maryland.

Location chosen for Jamestown
This location was chosen for its defense potential - it was inland, away from the Spanish navy, and it was on a peninsula with a deep water port with no Indians.

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