Earth Science Basics Flashcards

Earth Science Basics Flashcards
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Natural disaster that can be caused by earthquakes
Tsunami
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How humidity can cause fog
Fog is formed when air is condensed on a cool day
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Wind
A natural movement of air at any speed or location
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Humidity
The amount of water in the atmosphere
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Air pressure
The force exerted onto a surface by the amount of air
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Temperature
The amount of heat energy contained in an object
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Weather
The current condition of the atmosphere at a specific location; can be affected by wind
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Common characteristic of metals
Good conductors of electricity and heat
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Calculating the age of something using carbon dating
Compare its current and original amounts of carbon-14, using the half-life of carbon-14 to determine how long it would have taken for the carbon to decay to the current amount
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Half-life
The amount of time it takes for half of a portion of a radioactive substance to decay and break down
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Radioactive dating (also known as carbon dating)
Process where a radioactive substance's half-life is used to determine its age
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Chromosphere
The second outermost layer of the sun, it is red and 1,000 miles thick
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Photosphere
Layer of the sun that is visible to us because of the lights that it emits; it is 300 miles thick
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Corona
The sun's atmosphere
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Convection zone
Photons that were produced in the core make their way out into this zone through the process of convection
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Radiative zone
Layer of sun directly above the core that emits radiation
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The core of the sun
Layer at the center of the sun; where fusion happens
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Flashcard Content Overview

In order to move on to more complex topics, knowledge of the basics behind Earth Science is essential. You will visit topics such as the hydrologic water cycle, eukaryotic cells, corona, air pressure, and more.

Front
Back
The core of the sun
Layer at the center of the sun; where fusion happens
Radiative zone
Layer of sun directly above the core that emits radiation
Convection zone
Photons that were produced in the core make their way out into this zone through the process of convection
Corona
The sun's atmosphere
Photosphere
Layer of the sun that is visible to us because of the lights that it emits; it is 300 miles thick
Chromosphere
The second outermost layer of the sun, it is red and 1,000 miles thick
Radioactive dating (also known as carbon dating)
Process where a radioactive substance's half-life is used to determine its age
Half-life
The amount of time it takes for half of a portion of a radioactive substance to decay and break down
Calculating the age of something using carbon dating
Compare its current and original amounts of carbon-14, using the half-life of carbon-14 to determine how long it would have taken for the carbon to decay to the current amount
Common characteristic of metals
Good conductors of electricity and heat
Weather
The current condition of the atmosphere at a specific location; can be affected by wind
Temperature
The amount of heat energy contained in an object
Air pressure
The force exerted onto a surface by the amount of air
Humidity
The amount of water in the atmosphere
Wind
A natural movement of air at any speed or location
How humidity can cause fog
Fog is formed when air is condensed on a cool day
Natural disaster that can be caused by earthquakes
Tsunami
Cause of violent volcanic eruptions
When gas builds up in the earth's interior
Formation of metamorphic rocks
Other rocks being transformed by intense pressure and heat
Oparin's Hypothesis
Early life on Earth resulted from a set of reactions, such as lightning and UV radiation
Prokaryotic cells
Simple cells that do not contain organelles
Eukaryotic cells
Complex cells with organelles and a nucleus
Endosymbiosis theory
Mitochondria and plastids in eukaryotic cells used to be prokaryotic cells
Catastrophism
Catastrophic events cause different characteristics of the fossil record
Gradualism
Changes on earth take place slowly and continuously over a long period of time, like a glacier slowly altering the landscape
Punctuated equilibrium
The theory that short and abrupt changes in evolution were seen among periods where there were no major changes
Erosion
The movement of broken down rock from one location to other locations through the forces of gravity, wind, or water
Moraine
The rock that is left behind from a melted glacier
Chemical weathering
When rocks break down through chemical reactions
Mechanical weathering
When rocks break down due to natural elements such as wind or ice
Unconformities
Result from erosion that leaves gaps between younger and older rocks that get filled with new sediment
Order of hydrologic cycle
Evaporation, condensation and precipitation
Hydrologic water cycle
The movement of water above, on and below the surface of the Earth
Most important component to weather
Water
Igneous rocks
Rocks that are formed by magma or lava

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